The created darkness is banished by the pre-existent (uncreated) light (of God), Who is God with us the King Messiah and Light of the world.
“Arise, shine, Jerusalem, for the time of thy redemption is come, and the glory of the Lord is revealed upon thee.” -Targum Yonatan (2nd Century CE)
This is being spoken to “Jacob” (59:20-21), who is the closest preceding subject. To Jacob’s seed (59:21) generationally, meaning always spoken to Jacob’s seed. That is, to the ethnic, religious, empirical children of Israel, the Jews.
“For I am not ashamed of the gospel, because it is the power of God that brings salvation to everyone who believes: perpetually first for the Jew, and also perpetually for the Gentile.” -Romans 1:16
The idea of Israel’s redemption both physical and spiritual is implicit in the text and is illuminated by the Targum. In the context of the prophet’s time the physical redemption relates to Israel’s pursuant return from Babylonian captivity. However, in the prophetic present (past, present, future) the prophet is clearly speaking of the redemptive work of the Messiah, Who is implicitly referred to in 59:21 as the “Word”, and is known in Scripture as “Or Ha-olam: The Light of the World” (Yochanan [John] 8:12).
What light is come? The light of the Redeemer (59:20). To whom has this light come? To Zion, to Jacob (Israel, ethnic, religious), to Jerusalem (Targum). To what is this light likened? To the glory of HaShem. And where is the light situated? Upon Israel (ethnic, religious). What is the result of the light which is manifest in and upon Israel? The rebellion of Jacob is turned back (59:20), and Israel is to “get up” and “shine” that same light to the nations. What does God promise? To make a covenant of peace, to pour out His Spirit (Acts 2) upon Israel and put His Word (John 1:1) everlasting in her mouth (59:21).
Israel (ethnic, religious, chosen, set apart) was chosen before the creation of the world to be a light to the nations through her perfect representative, the Servant Redeemer Yeshua, the King Messiah. The King Messiah and Redeemer was to come from her and thus turn her away from rebellion against God. As a result His redemptive work is to be made known to all humanity.
“Listen to me, distant nations,
you people who live far away!
Before I was born, the Lord chose me
and appointed me to be his servant.
2 He made my words as sharp as a sword.
With his own hand he protected me.
He made me like an arrow,
sharp and ready for use.
3 He said to me, “Israel, you are my servant;
because of you, people will praise me.”
4 I said, “I have worked, but how hopeless it is!
I have used up my strength, but have accomplished nothing.”
Yet I can trust the Lord to defend my cause;
he will reward me for what I do.
5 Before I was born, the Lord appointed me;
he made me his servant to bring back his people,
to bring back the scattered people of Israel.
The Lord gives me honor;
he is the source of my strength.
6 The Lord said to me,
“I have a greater task for you, my servant.
Not only will you restore to greatness
the people of Israel who have survived,
but I will also make you a light to the nations--
so that all the world may be saved.”
7 Israel's holy God and savior says
to the one who is deeply despised,
who is hated by the nations
and is the servant of rulers:
“Kings will see you released
and will rise to show their respect;
princes also will see it,
and they will bow low to honor you.”
This will happen because the Lord has chosen his servant;
the holy God of Israel keeps his promises.” -Isaiah 49:1-7 (GNT)
“Get up” Is an invitation that requires action. Likewise “shine” is an action of light. Israel is not being forced to participate, rather she is being offered the opportunity to participate in what God is doing. God has sent His Redeemer, and Israel must receive her redemption. God has offered His light, and Israel must receive it and place it on a hill so that all can see. “Get up” or “stay wallowing in your sin”, “shine” or “remain in darkness”. You have a decision to make and a choice for action or inaction. Inaction is action.
“for your light is come” Not, “Your light has come” or “your light will come” but “Your light is come!” This is a statement of the eternal present. The light “Or” of Messiah pre-exists creation and although He made Himself subject to creation by the act of His will, He is none the less before creation and Ruler over creation and has made the sin affected creation subject to Him through His death and resurrection.
“and the glory of YHVH upon you rises and breaks out.” The glory (light) of God with us cannot be contained. By nature God’s redemptive light breaks out in this sin affected world and dispels the darkness.
“Even so let your light shine before men; that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father who is in heaven.” -Matthew 5:6 (ASV)
In conclusion, Yeshua is the Light of the world and Israel is called to stand in Him and shine that light to the nations. Thus, both the Servant and in another sense Israel (ethnic, religious) are called to be “light to the nations”. Speaking of Himself Yeshua says “Salvation (the Person) comes from the Jews (plural)” [John 4:22].
“When Yeshua spoke again to the people, he said, ‘I am the light of the world. Whoever follows me will never walk in darkness, but will have the light of life.’” -Yochanan (John) 8:12
“You are the light of the world. A town built on a hill cannot be hidden. Neither do people light a lamp and put it under a bowl. Instead they put it on its stand, and it gives light to everyone in the house.” -Matthew 5:14-15 (NIV)
Isa 60:2 Kiy Hineih For, behold, now, pay attention, ha-choshech the darkness yechaseh-eretz shall cover the land, va’arafel and thick darkness leumiym the tribes; ve’alayich and on you yizrach shall rise, break out HaShem (YHVH: Mercy), uchevodo and his glory alayich upon you yeira’eh shall be seen.
“For, behold, the darkness shall cover the earth, and gross darkness the kingdoms: but in thee the Shekinah of the Lord shall dwell, and His glory shall be revealed upon thee.” -Targum Yonatan (2nd Century CE)
The Targum illuminates for the English reader the obvious connection in the Hebrew text of Isaiah 60:2 to both the Genesis creation narrative (Genesis 1) and the plague of darkness that came against Egypt during Israel’s captivity there (while the Egyptians were in thick darkness the Israelites dwelt in light in Goshen. Exodus 10:21-22). Simply put, the created darkness is banished by the pre-existent (uncreated) light (of God), Who is God with us the King Messiah and Light of the world.
“For, behold, now, pay attention, the darkness shall cover the land, and thick darkness the tribes” To translate “leumiym” here as “to the peoples” and “eretz” as “earth” is to disregard the context. It is not “peoples” in general that are being spoken of as the inception point of the receiving of the light and glory of HaShem’s redemptive action but Israel, ethnic, religious. The following verse makes this clear by using language specific to the nations “goyim” regarding those who are drawn to the light of God, as it is seen manifest upon Israel (ethnic, religious).
Therefore, the “darkness” (blindness) covers the land of Israel, and the “thick darkness” of HaShem’s presence (Gen.15:12; 1 Kings 8:12; Psalm 18:11; 97:2; 1 Tim. 6:16) covers the tribes of Israel.
We note that the “thick darkness” is a reference to the presence of God Who dwells in unapproachable light, and that the context of these opening verses relates to the presence of the glory of Hashem manifest on the Mishkan (Tent of meeting) in the desert (Exodus 40:34) and the Temple of Solomon at its inauguration (1 Kings 8).
“And Moses and Aaron went into the tent of meeting, and came out, and blessed the tribe: and the glory of HaShem appeared unto all the tribe. -Leviticus 9:23
“When the priests withdrew from the Holy Place, the cloud filled the temple of the Lord. And the priests could not perform their service because of the cloud, for the glory of the Lord filled his temple. Then Solomon said, ‘The Lord has said that he would dwell in a dark cloud;’” -1 Kings 8:10-12 (NIV)
“on you shall rise, break out HaShem and his glory upon you shall be seen.” Upon both the land and the tribes HaShem will rise and break out, and His glory will be seen. Who will see it? The “goyim” nations. The following verse affirms this reading.
One of the rabbis of the Talmud understands this verse to refer to the coming of the King Messiah:
“And that is the background for the following exchange, as a certain heretic said to Rabbi Abbahu: When will the Messiah come? Rabbi Abbahu said to him: He will come when the darkness will enshroud these people, i.e., you. The heretic said to him: Are you cursing me for no reason? Rabbi Abbahu said to him, I am merely relating to you a verse that is written: “For behold, the darkness shall cover the earth, and fog the peoples; but the Lord shall shine upon you, and His glory shall be seen upon you” (Isaiah 60:2).” -T. Bab. Sanhedrin, fol. 99. 1.
“13 I charge you before God who gives life to all things and Messiah Yeshua who testified the good confession before Pontius Pilate, 14 to keep this command without spot or blame until the appearing of our Lord Yeshua the Messiah. 15 This He will reveal in His own time—the blessed and only Ruler, the King of kings and the Lord of lords, 16 who alone has immortality, dwelling in unapproachable light, whom no man has seen or is able to see. To Him be honor and eternal dominion! Amen.” -1 Timothy 6:13-16 (TLV)
Isa 60:3 Vehalechu goyim And nations shall walk leoreich to your light, umelachiym and kings le’nogah to the brightness of zarcheich your dawning.
As stated previously, the “peoples” of verse 2 cannot be the “nations” of the present verse because the “peoples” of the previous verse are the subject of “your light” which the “nations” are drawn to. Therefore, the “tribes” of Israel are the “amiym” of verse 2 and it is the light of Messiah in the tribes of Israel that the “goyim” of the present verse are drawn to.
Some have suggested the following reading of the Targum, “and the nations will walk in your light”. If applied to the Messiah, this is an accurate understanding of the need for the redeemed to remain in Him.
There is of course an intrinsic connection to the Messiah Who is the source of Israel’s light.
“Yea, all kings shall fall down before him; All nations shall serve him.” -Psalm 72:11 (ASV)
In a literal sense kings (rulers, spiritual leaders) from the east were drawn to the light of a star that led them to the Light of the world, born into time and space as a boy of the tribe of Judah, in the line of David (Matthew 2).
Isa 60:4 Se’iy-saviyv Lift up in a circuit eiynayich your eyes, ure’iy and see: kulam all nikbetzu assemble, vau-lach they come to you; banayich your sons meirachok from afar yavo’u shall come, uvenotayich and your daughters al-tzad upon the side te’amanah will be nursed, supported faithfully.
“Lift up thine eyes, O Jerusalem, round about, and see all the children of the people of thy captivity, who are gathered together: thy sons shall come from far into thy midst, and thy daughters shall be carried upon the arms.” -Targum Yonatan (2nd Century CE)
This in part refers to the return of exiles from Babylon. It also finds manifestations in numerous proceeding generations to some degree or another, and is profoundly applicable to the modern Jewish state but ultimately finds fulfilment yet future in the return of the King Messiah and the redemption through Him of the entire remnant of Israel (ethnic, religious).
“Thus says the Lord YHVH, Behold, I will lift up my hand to the nations, and set up my ensign to the peoples; and they shall bring thy sons in their bosom, and thy daughters shall be carried upon their shoulders.” -Isaiah 49:22
Isa 60:5 Az Then tiriy you will see venahart and be radiant, ufachad and tremble (be in awe) verachav and grow wide levaveich your heart; kiy because yeihafeich you shall be overturned, alayich upon you hamon the abundance yam of a sea, cheiyl the wealth of goyim nations yavo’u lach will come to you.
“Then thou shalt see and be enlightened, and thou shalt be struck with awe, and thine heart shall be enlarged on account of the terror of sinners, for the riches of the west shall be transferred unto thee; the treasures of the nations shall be brought unto thee.” -Targum Yonatan (2nd Century CE)
The Targum gives the overall sense of the physical results born from the metaphysical change caused by the light of God.
“Then” Means “In due course” or “Next in order”. This reminds us to look at the progression of events that began in verse 1:
- Get up and shine, for your light has come (v.1)
- Pay attention, for God is manifest upon you and will be seen by others (v.2)
- Nations will walk toward your light (v.3)
- The nations will return your sons and daughters to you (v.4)
- Then you will become radiant and open your heart (v.5)
“Then you will see and be radiant, and tremble (be in awe) and grow wide your heart” It is now, as a result of the transforming work of God’s light (The King Messiah) in you, you will radiate His glory as Moses did at Sinai: you will tremble before God in humble awe and the fruit will be a heart of grace and mercy toward others.
“because you shall be overturned, upon you the abundance of a sea, the wealth of nations will come to you.” To be overturned is a Hebrew idiom best translated into English as “a change of heart” or “repented”. In other words, because Israel allows God to overturn her through the redemptive work of His Messiah, the nations will witness her transformation and acknowledge it as the work of God. They will therefore, bring physical riches to Israel in honour of the spiritual blessing that results from God’s saving action.
“25 But now I am going to Jerusalem, bringing aid to the kedoshim. 26 For Macedonia and Achaia were pleased to make some contribution for the poor among the believers in Jerusalem. 27 Yes, they were pleased to do so, and they are under obligation to them. For if the Gentiles have shared in their spiritual blessings, they also ought to serve them in material blessings.” -Rav Shaul’s letter to the Roman Believers 15:25-27 (TLV)
Isa 60:6 Shifat The multitude gemaliym of camels techaseich shall cover you, bichreiy the young camels of Midyan (strife) ve’eiyfah and Ephah (gloom, darkness); kulam all misheva from Sheba (Seven, oath, blessing) yavo’u shall come; zahav gold ulevonah and frankincense yisa’u they will carry, utehilot and the praises of HaShem (YHVH: Mercy) yevaseiru they shall announce as good news.
Midian was a son of Abraham by Keturah and Ephah a son of Midian (Gen. 25:4). Sheba is also of the blood of Abraham (Gen. 25:3). Their progeny subsequently inhabited Arabia.
Therefore, as a result of the work of the Redeemer and the light that He manifests in Israel the Arabian tribes will be drawn to salvation on mass.
In fact, at one point in history three eastern leaders and their retinue are drawn to Salvation Himself, riding camels and bearing gold, frankincense and myrrh (Matt. 2). In turn they will announce the “Good news” (Gospel) to others.
Isa 60:7 Kol-tzon All the flocks of Keidar (dusk, mourning) yikavetzu shall be gathered together lach to you, eiyleiy the rams of Nevayot (heights) yesharetunech shall minister to you; ya’alu they shall come up al-ratzon with delight (acceptance) to mizbechiy My altar; uveiyt and the house tifartiy of My splendour afa’eir I will glorify, beautify, adorn.
“All the flocks of Kedar shall be gathered together to you, the rams of Nebaioth shall minister to you;” Nebaioth and Kedar were sons of Ishmael, (Gen.25:13). Ishmael's twelve sons, of which Nebaioth was the eldest, inhabited all the country from Euphrates to the Red sea, known in classical antiquity as Nabataea.
The noun “flocks” is primarily used here in a figurative sense. In this context it refers to the tribes of nations other than Israel: specifically those tribes who share the bloodline of Ishmael’s sons Kedar and Nebaioth (Arab tribes). The figurative use of the noun is supported by the phrase “shall minister to you”, which is something that applies to those involved in human service. Ministering (in this context) requires cognitive thought and human intention.
“they shall come up with delight (acceptance) My altar;” This is significant because the tribes mentioned were known for the worship of other deities and were not worshippers of the God of Israel. The Hebrew “ratzon” can be translated as “acceptance” and denotes the fruit of repentance and atonement. Therefore, this speaks of the redemption of Arab tribes through Messiah, and their reconciliation to both God and Israel (their ancient cousins).
“the house of My splendour I will glorify, beautify, adorn.” This is a reference to the Temple of God in Jerusalem, which is to be “a house of prayer for all the tribes” (Isaiah 56:7). Yeshua rebukes Israel for failing to honour the Temple as a house of prayer for all tribes (Matt. 21:13; Mark 11:17; Luke 19:46). He also uses the noun “flock” in a figurative sense to refer to His future followers from other tribes, peoples, nations (John 10:16).
Isa 60:8 Miy Who eileh are these ka’av like a cloud te’ufeynah of flying things, vechayoniym and like doves aruboteiyhem to a window?
Given the context it appears that those like the cloud of flying things are the masses of the Arab tribes and eastern nations who come to faith in and through the light of Messiah, and are drawn to Jerusalem to worship the God of Israel. Among these masses are those like doves returning to a window or a hollow. This is likely an allusion to the children of Israel who return to the land with the repentant among their captors. The Targum understands the entire verse to apply to the returned captives of Israel.
“Who are these that are coming openly like swift clouds, and tarry not? the captives of Israel, who are gathered together, come to their land, lo, as doves which return to their dove-houses.” -Targum Yonatan (2nd Century CE)
This causes me to think of the “Holy doves” of the Kotel (Western wall) in Jerusalem, who return to nest in the crevices of the outer wall of the Temple Mount.
Isa 60:9 Kiy-liy For Me iymiym the islands (Mediterranean coastlands) yekavu shall wait, vo’oniyit and the ships of Tarshiysh (yellow jasper) barishonah among the first, lehaviy to bring banayich your sons merachok from afar, kaspam their silver uzhavam and their gold itam with them, lesheim for the name of HaShem (YHVH: Mercy) Elohayich your God, velikdush and for the Holy One Yisrael of Israel, kiy because fei’arach he has beautified, adorned, glorified you.
“Surely, the isles shall wait for my Word, and those that embark in the ships of the sea, the hand that stretches out their sails shall be first, to bring thy sons from afar, their silver and their gold with them, unto the name of the Lord thy God, and to the Holy One of Israel, because He hath glorified thee.” -Targum Yonatan (2nd Century CE)
The tribes and nations to the west (Mediterranean) will wait for HaShem the God of Israel. For what reason do the western nations wait on HaShem? For their own salvation. The Targum understands the text to refer to the Word of God, which includes both the Torah, the prophetic books and the writings, and more importantly is used by the prophet Yochanan (John) in a figurative sense to represent the Living Word, the King Messiah. Therefore, the tribes and nations to the west wait on the King Messiah as the manifestation of God with us.
Upon seeing God’s mighty act of redemption and the light of His presence upon Israel, the nations to the west will sail to the land of Israel bringing back Jews and with them, the riches of their respective nations. All this will be done “for the Name of YHVH”, Who will be recognized as “the Holy One of Israel” because He has glorified His people through the glory of the King Messiah and in His redemptive purpose.
Isa 60:10 Uvanu beneiy-neichar And the sons of foreigners will build up chomotayich your walls, umalcheiyhem and their kings yesharetunech shall minister to you: kiy for vekitzpiy in my wrath hiykiytiych I struck you, uvirtzoniy but in my favour, acceptance richamtiych I have had mercy on you.
The Hebrew “beneiy-neichar” is used elsewhere to refer to converts to Judaism. It is possible that the same is meant here. Regardless, the beautiful irony remains, that the sons of nations that sought to tear down Jerusalem’s walls are the same that will rebuild them. What is more is that the rulers of those same nations will come to minister to the people of Israel. And all this, not because of Israel’s righteousness but because of God’s righteousness made manifest in her through His Light, the Redeemer, King Yeshua.
Isa 60:11 Ufitchu she’arayich Therefore, your gates will be open tamiyd continually, everlasting; yomam valaylah lo yisageiru they will not be shut day nor night; lehavi elayich cheiyl goyim so that wealth of the nations will be brought to you, umalcheiyhem and their kings nehugiym led captive.
“And the gates thereof shall in no wise be shut by day (for there shall be no night there): and they shall bring the glory and the honor of the nations into it:” -Revelation 21:25-26 (ASV)
The only way a city’s gates can remain open forever is if that city remains forever. Therefore, this speaks of the convergent Jerusalem at the inception of the Olam Haba (World to come).
Regarding the kings of the nations Kimchi the Jewish commentator writes:
"they shall come before the King Messiah, as servants before their masters.''
Isa 60:12 Kiy-hagoy For the nation vehamamlachah and kingdom asher that lo-ya’avduch will not serve you yoveidu will perish, vanish, be destroyed; ve’hagoyim and those nations charov yecheravu will be utterly wasted, made completely desolate.
“For the nation and kingdom that will not serve thee, Jerusalem, shall perish; yea, those nations shall be utterly destroyed.” -Targum Yonatan (2nd Century CE)
The subject here is redeemed Israel under the rule of the King Messiah. Therefore, any nation (organised collective) that will not serve the King Messiah and His chosen people Israel (ethnic, religious: Not the Church), will be wiped out, made utterly desolate. Such is the strength of this warning that it is doubled. This is a firmly established metaphysical reality for those who oppose Israel and her Messiah.
“And it shall be, that whoever of the families of the earth go not up unto Jerusalem to worship the King, HaShem of hosts, upon them there shall be no rain.” -Zechariah 14:17
Isa 60:13 Kevod The glory halevanon of Lebanon (Whiteness) elayich yavo shall come to you, berosh the cypress, tidhar the pine, uteashur and the box-tree yachdav together, lefa’eir to beautify mekom the place mikdashiy of My sanctuary; umekom and the place raglay achabeid of My feet, weighty with glory.
This connects the prophecy to the building of Solomon’s Temple and the manifest glory of God (1 Kings 6:9).
“The place of My feet” Is both figurative and literal. Literal in the sense of the Messiah, the Malakh HaShem (Angel of the Lord), and figurative in the sense of God’s light presence made manifest in Jerusalem. King David recognises the Mercy seat of the Ark of the covenant as the “footstool” of HaShem:
“Then David the king stood up upon his feet, and said, Hear me, my brethren, and my people: as for me, it was in my heart to build a house of rest for the ark of the covenant of Adonai, and for the footstool of our God; and I had made ready for the building.” -1 Chronicles 28:2
Isa 60:14 Vehalechu eilayich And walking toward you shechoach the bending beneiy sons me’anayich of them that afflicted you; vehishtachavu bowing themselves down al-kapot raglayich at the soles of your feet; kol-mena’atzayich all those who despised you vekare’u loch will call you iyr City of HaShem (YHVH: Mercy), Tziyon (Parched land) kedush Yisrael of the Holy One of Israel.
The persecutors of Israel will be made subject to her and to her King Messiah.
“City of YHVH” refers to Jerusalem, in Zion, purchased by the Holy One of Israel.
Isa 60:15 Tachat Whereas heyoteich you have been azuvah forsaken usenuah and hated, ve’eiyn oveir so that none passed through you, vesamtiych I will make you ligon olam an eternal majesty, mesos a joy dor vador of generation upon generation.
Once again the only way a city can be made eternally majestic is if it is an eternal city. Therefore, the New Jerusalem is being spoken of.
“Beautiful in elevation, the joy of the whole earth, Is mount Zion, the sides of the north, The city of the great King.”-Psalm 48:2 (ASV)
“Generation upon generation” Is a collective phrase referring to the gathering of generations past present and future to dwell within a city whose majesty is everlasting. It does not denote reproduction in the world to come, nor does it refer to the present world.
Isa 60:16 Veyanakt And you will nurse (suckle) chaleiv milk goyim of nations, veshod melachiym and at the breast of kings tinakiy you will nurse (suckle); ve’yada’at and you will know kiy that Aniy I, HaShem (YHVH: Mercy), am Moshiyeich your Saviour, ve’goaleich and your Redeemer, aviyr Yaakov the Mighty One of Jacob.
Israel will be supplied by the nations, and as a result will know that God Himself is her Saviour (Yeshua, the King Messiah).
“I say then, they did not stumble so as to fall, did they? A curse on that idea! (May it never be!) But by their false step salvation has come to the Gentiles, to provoke Israel to jealousy. 12 Now if their transgression leads to riches for the world, and their loss riches for the Gentiles, then how much more their fullness!” -Romans 11:11-12
“I, HaShem, am your Saviour, and your Redeemer, the Mighty One of Jacob.” How can HaShem both send a Redeemer (59:20) and be the Redeemer? Only if the Redeemer is a manifestation of the Person of God that enters time and space and remains present outside of time and space as a result of His redemptive work. Immanuel (With us God) the King Messiah Yeshua alone qualifies.
Isa 60:17 Tachat Instead hanechoshet of brass aviy I will bring zahav gold, vetachat and instead habarzel of iron aviy I will bring kesef silver, vetachat and instead of ha’eitziym wood nechoshet brass, vetachat and instead of ha’avaniym stones barzel iron. Ve’samtiy I will also appoint fekudateich your custodians shalom peace, wholeness, wellbeing, venogesayich and your taskmasters tzedakah righteousness.
The progression of elements makes the most valued material of Israel’s oppression the lest valuable of her redemption. Thus her desolation is turned into prosperity through the redemptive work of God.
In counter distinction to the drunk watchmen and wicked shepherds of the former chapters, God will appoint rulers who impart peace and the motivation for the people will be righteousness personified.
Isa 60:18 Lo-yishama No more will be heard od again chamas violence be’artzeich in your land, shod desolation veshever and fracturing bigvulayich within your borders; vekarat and you will call yeshuah chomotayich thy walls Salvation, ushe’arayich and your gates tehilah Praise.
“They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy mountain; for the earth shall be full of the knowledge of Adonai, as the waters cover the sea.” -Isaiah 11:9
Salvation Himself (Yeshua) will be the protection, peace and Light of the New Jerusalem.
Isa 60:19 Lo-yihyeh-lach od ha-shemesh The sun will no longer be leor your light yomam by day; ulenogah hayareicach lo-yaiyr lach and the brightness of the moon will not give light to you: vehayah-lach but HaShem (YHVH) will be to you le’or olam an everlasting light, veilohayich and your God letifarteich will be your splendour, beauty, glory.
This is a description of the New Jerusalem and the dwelling of God with humanity on the new earth.
“And the city hath no need of the sun, neither of the moon, to shine upon it: for the glory of God did lighten it, and the light thereof is the Lamb.” -Revelation 21:23
Isa 60:20 Lo-yavo od shimsheich Your sun will no longer go down, vireicheich lo yeiaseif and your moon will not withdraw itself; kiy for HaShem (YHVH: Mercy) yihyeh-loch will be your le’or olam everlasting light, veshalmu and the fullness (end, covenant of peace) of your yemeiy days evleich of mourning.
“Thy kingdom shall cease no more, and thy glory shall not be removed: for the Lord shall be thine everlasting light, and the days of thy mourning shall be ended.” -Targum Yonatan (2nd Century CE)
“and He shall wipe away every tear from their eyes; and death shall be no more; neither shall there be mourning, nor crying, nor pain, any more: the first things are passed away.” -Revelation 21:4 (ASV)
Isa 60:21 Veameich Your tribes kulam tzaddikim will all be righteous ones; leolam also forever yireshu aretz they shall inherit the land, neitzer the green sprout (branch, shoot) matatay a planting, ma’aseh the work yaday of My hands, lehitpaeir that I may be glorified, adorned.
This refers to all the tribes of Israel represented by a holy remnant, redeemed through Yeshua the King Messiah.
“Now I heard the number of those marked with the seal:
144,000 from every tribe of Bnei-Yisrael—” -Revelation 7:4 (TLV)
“Then I looked, and behold, the Lamb was standing on Mount Zion, and with Him were 144,000 who had His name and His Father’s name written on their foreheads. 2 And I heard a voice from heaven like the roar of rushing waters and the booming of loud thunder. The voice I heard was like harpists playing on their harps. 3 And they are singing a new song before the throne and before the four living creatures and the elders; and no one is able to learn the song except the 144,000 who had been redeemed from the earth.” -Revelation 14:1-3 (TLV)
“The branch of My planting” is a figurative reference to the King Messiah the branch of Jesse. Therefore, Israel’s tribes will inherit the land of Israel as covenanted by God with Abraham as a result of the redemptive work of the King Messiah.
“Then a shoot will come forth out of the stem of Jesse,
and a branch will bear fruit out of His roots.
2 The Ruach of Adonai will rest upon Him,
the Spirit of wisdom and insight,
the Spirit of counsel and might,
the Spirit of knowledge
and of the fear of Adonai.
3 His delight will be in the fear of Adonai.
He will not judge by what His eyes see,
nor decide by what His ears hear.” -Isaiah 11:1-3 (TLV)
Isa 60:22 Hakaton The little one yihyeh will become laelef a thousand, vehatzaiyr and the insignificant one legoy atzum a strong nation; Aniy I, HaShem (YHVH: Mercy), be’itah achiyshenah will hasten it in its time.
This is speaking of the least among the tribes of Israel becoming great both physically and spiritually through the work of the King Messiah. It also speaks of Israel “the insignificant one” being made “a strong nation” and this, “hastened in its time” by Hashem. The phrasing “Aniy YHVH” (I Am HaShem) is fierce. God is zealous for His chosen people Israel (ethnic, religious), and when the fullness of the nations has come in He will save all Israel (ethnic, religious, empirical) [Romans 11:25-26]. Nowhere in the entirety of Scripture is Israel ever used figuratively or otherwise to refer to Gentiles (Nor is it ever used of the Church). Israel is an ethnic, religious proper noun given to those who are of the bloodline of Jacob (twelve tribes). Likewise the noun “Jew” derived from Yehudah (praise), is now used to describe those who are of the tribes of Israel united under the tribe of Judah upon returning to the land of Israel and the territory of Judah following the Babylonian exile. Therefore, for all intents and purposes the titles “Jew” and “Israel” are now synonymous. Those who say otherwise speak with a satanic tongue.
Copyright 2019 Yaakov Brown