Thus, under Roman occupation and religious tyranny the common people of Israel were powerless to prevent Yeshua’s death, and in turn, neither the governments of this world nor any power in the heavens or on the earth were able to prevent His resurrection.
The events of John 10:1-21 took place sometime following Sukkot in the month of Tishrei, and probably occurred within a week of the eighth day Shmini Atzeret. The events of verses 22 to 42 take place in the winter during Chanukah at the end of the month of Kislev. Thus, two months have gone by between verses 21 and 22 of John chapter 10.
22 At that time the Festival of the Chanukah[H] (egkainia[G] , renewal, dedication from kainos - new) took place at Yerushalayim[H] (Jerusalem, downpour of peace); 23 it was winter (cheimōn[G] – stormy), and Yeshua[H] (Iesous[G], Jesus, Joshua, YHVH Saves), was walking in the house (b’veiyt[H]) of the temple (hieron[G], ha-mikdash[H]) in the porch (stoa[G]) of Shlomoh[H] (Solomon, peace, wholeness, well-being).
The Greek text allows for the reading “At the time of the new festival taking place in Jerusalem; it was winter…” Either way, the festival is Chanukah, the only Jewish festival that takes place in winter, and at that time a relatively new extra-Biblical festival, not a festival of the Torah or the Tanakh (e.g. Purim).
The festival of Chanukah (new dedication), appointed by Yehudah Maccabee and his brothers, following the purging of the temple, and renewing of the altar, after the desecrating of them by Antiochus Epiphanes; begins on the twenty fifth of the month of Kislev, (November-December of the modern western calendar).
"52 Now on the five and twentieth day of the ninth month, which is called the month Kislev, in the hundred forty and eighth year, they rose up betimes in the morning, 56 And so they kept the dedication of the altar eight days and offered burnt offerings with gladness, and sacrificed the sacrifice of deliverance and praise. 59 Moreover Judas and his brethren with the whole congregation of Israel ordained, that the days of the dedication of the altar should be kept in their season from year to year by the space of eight days, from the five and twentieth day of the month Kislev, with mirth and gladness.'' -1 Maccabees 4
"5 Now upon the same day that the strangers profaned the temple, on the very same day it was cleansed again, even the five and twentieth day of the same month, which is Kislev. 8 They ordained also by a common statute and decree, That every year those days should be kept of the whole nation of the Jews.'' -2 Maccabees 10:8
חנוכה "the dedication"; and they are forbidden mourning and fasting, as the days of "Purim"; and the lighting of the lamps on them, is a commandment from the Scribes, as is the reading of the book of Esther. How many lamps do they light at the feast of the dedication? the order is, that every house should light one lamp, whether the men of the house be many, or whether there is but one man in it; but he that honours the command, lights up lamps according to the number of the men of the house, a lamp for everyone, whether men or women; and he that honours it more, lights up a lamp for every man the first night, and adds as he goes, every night a lamp; for instance, if there be ten men in the house, the first night he lights up ten lamps, and on the second night twenty, and on the third night thirty; until he comes to the eighth night, when he lights up fourscore lamps.'' -Hilchot Megillah Uchanucha, c. 3. sect. 2, 3. & 4. 1, 2. Vid. Talmud Bavliy Shabbat, fol. 21. 2.
Josephus the Jewish Historian calls Chanukah the “Festival of Lights” due to the lighting of the temple during this rededication festival. This is later reflected in the lighting of chanukiyot (special menorot for Chanukah) [Antiquities of the Jews. l. 12. c. 7. sect. 7.].
The following exert from a siddur (prayer book) used for Chanukah reads:
"blessed art thou, O Lord our God, the King of the world, who hath sanctified us by his commandments, and hath "commanded" us to light the lamp of the dedication; blessed art thou, O Lord our God, the King of the world, who did wonders for our fathers on those days, at this time; blessed art thou, O Lord our God, the King of the world, who has kept us alive, and preserved us, and brought us to this time; these lamps we light, because of the wonders and marvellous things, and salvations, and wars, thou hast wrought for our fathers on those days at this time, by the hand of thine holy priests.--These lamps are holy, we have no power to use them, but only to behold them, so as to confess and praise thy great name, for thy miracles, and for thy wonders, and for thy salvations.'' -Seder Tephillot, fol. 234. 1, 2. Ed. Amsterd.
Solomon’s Porch was situated on the outside of the Temple complex to the east (also mentioned in Acts 3:11; 5:12). The covered portico on the west side of the outer wall which is often mistakenly called Solomon’s Colonnade, is in fact the Royal Stola. The record of Josephus makes it clear that Solomon’s Colonnade is situated next to the deep valley of the Kidron (east), and not on the west side of the temple complex.
"there was a porch without the temple, overlooking a deep valley, supported by walls of four hundred cubits, made of four square stone, very white; the length of each stone was twenty cubits, and the breadth six; the work of king Solomon, who first founded the whole temple.'' -Josephus Antiquities of the Jews. l. 20. c. 8. sect. 7.
In order to form a foundation for context I will retell the events leading up to Chanukah so as to give insight into the religious thinking of the first century at the time of these events recorded in John 10:22-42. My version of events touches on the main historical points while also allowing for some artistic licence in terms of storytelling.
The Chanukah Story as it relates to John 10:22-42:
It was the winter of 165 BCE and the known world was ruled by an anti-messiah named Antiochus Epiphanes, a man who claimed to be the manifest image of the invisible Supreme God. The darkness of his empire reached its greatest depths in the land of Israel where he had banned all practices associated with the worship of the God of Israel. The darkness was not confined to the physical world. Many in Israel, having suffered under relentless persecution, had turned away from worshipping God, Israel’s temple had been defiled, and the light of her holy Menorah, representing the manifest light presence of God had been snuffed out.
A small army of Jewish warrior priests lead by Yehudah Maccabee, approached the court of Israel inside the Temple complex in Jerusalem. Despite the size of their army God had enabled them to defeat the Tyrant Antiochus and his hordes and were now seeking to restore and rededicate the Temple of Israel’s God.
As they walked past the altar of sacrifice toward the doorway of the Temple they saw the remnants of burnt pig skin and smelt the foul stench of pigs’ blood. Several of the men buckled at the knees and vomited in disgust at this sacrilege, others hardened their resolve and moved forward toward the entrance of the Holy place.
The Temple was dark, devoid of light, and as they entered the men tripped on debris and slid on pig fat and faeces. One of the soldiers lit a torch, the flame struggled against the cold wind that blew in from behind them. Suddenly, as if by divine edict the wind stopped and the flame grew strong, illuminating the Holy place and revealing the full extent of the desecrations that had been perpetrated there. An Idol of the Greek god Zeus stood in the Holy of Holies and the remnants of pig and fowl carcasses littered the floor. The seven branched Menorah, the windowless Temple’s only source of light, lay toppled on the stone floor and the incense altar was overflowing with urine.
Judah and his men fell to their knees, they sobbed like helpless children and in the torch light they cried out to the God of Israel, “Hoshiyah na!” Save us now! In the midst of their wailing and hopelessness they heard the voice of a young boy who had followed them into the Temple courts. He yelled out at the top of his lungs, “I’ve found a jug of undefiled oil, the priestly seal is still on it. I discovered it hidden beneath the floor in one of the side rooms”.
The silence that ensued was palpable, something shifted in the atmosphere and the walls of the Temple seemed to radiate heat. As the boy lifted up the jug of oil, it glistened in the torch light. Yehudah called to his men and had them begin to cleanse the Temple, he collected the oil and used it to light the Menorah, knowing that there was only enough oil to last for one day. As the oil of the sevenfold lamp took fire, the Temple came to life and the hope of God filled the hearts of the heroic priestly warriors of Israel.
Day after day they returned to the Temple, and day after day the Menorah continued to burn until finally on the eighth day, after more oil had been consecrated, the miracle gave way to the practice of the priests. The Temple, once defiled and thrown into darkness was now restored to life with the light of God and the symbol of His Spirit and present glory.
On the eighth day as Yehudah returned to his residence he walked through the section of the Temple complex known as Solomon’s colonnade. Some of the Judean leaders asked him, “What shall we do with the defiled altar stones? They can’t be used again because we’re unable to purge them of the pigs blood that they’ve absorbed. But at the same time we can’t throw them out because they’ve been part of the Holy Temple service.” Yehudah responded, “Put them aside in a secure location and when the Messiah comes we will ask Him what we should do about the defiled altar.” And so they did as Judah had instructed, and Israel waited.
Some 200 years later circa 30 CE it was the time of the Festival of Chanukah in Jerusalem. It was winter, and Yeshua the King Messiah was in the Temple courts walking in Solomon’s Colonnade. Some of the Judean leaders who were there, gathered around Him, and asked, “How long will you keep us in suspense? If you are the Messiah, tell us publicly, plainly, explicitly.” (Yochanan/John 10:22-24) Yeshua answered them, “I have already told you, and you don’t trust me. The works I do in my Father’s name testify on my behalf, but the reason you don’t trust is that you are not included among my sheep. My sheep listen to my voice, I recognize them, they follow me, and I give them eternal life. They will absolutely never be destroyed, and no one will snatch them from My hands. My Father, who gave them to Me, is greater than all; and no one can snatch them from the Father’s hands. I and the Father are echad, one, a complex unity.” (Yochanan/John 10:25-30)
Through His sacrificial death on behalf of Israel and the nations and by His resurrection, Yeshua answered the question of what to do with the defiled altar stones:
“Throw them away, you don’t need them anymore!”
Yeshua had come to set alight a nation of priests (1 Peter 2:9), who would not only light up the physical temple but would become the temple of the living God, both individually and corporately.
A note on Chanukah’s proximity to Christmas:
It’s worth noting that while the Bible does not tell us when Yeshua was born, it is clear that early believers saw a link between Chanukah and the birth of the Messiah. Thus, there is documented evidence of the celebration of Messiah’s birth during winter from as early as the third century, and in spite of the many deluded accusations of Christmas hating Messianics, who circumstantially relate the decision of celebrating Messiah’s birth on the 25th of December to pagan observances, the reality is simply that early Messiah following Jews clearly saw a link between the Light of the World Yeshua and the light of the Chanukah celebration. As a result the 25th of Kislev found a convergence with the equivalent gentile calendar date during the month of December. Thus, the transposing of the date became the premise for the celebrating of Christmas on the 25th of December by Gentile Christians. It is high time we put to death the pseudo learned nonsense of those who theorize a Sukkot birth. It is simply not consistent with the majority of evidence available to us at present. For further study read my articles refuting popular objections to Christmas.
24 Some of the Jewish religious leaders, Judeans (Ioudaios[G], Yehudiym[H]), then gathered around Him (Yeshua), and were saying to Him, “How long will You leave us with our breathing (psuche[G]) heightened (airo[G]), in suspense [Aramaic txt. leh ‘dama lematy nasev anat nafshan[A]: How long will you hold our souls]? If You are the Mashiyach[H] (Christos[G], Anointed One, Christ), tell us boldly, plainly (parrhesia[G]).”
The Hebraic idiom “hold our soul” or “take away our soul” is equivalent to the modern phrase “Hold us in suspense.”
“Tell us boldly, plainly” means “Tell us explicitly, say ‘I am the Mashiyach’” or, as some understand it, “If you desire the position of Messiah, submit your request to us here in public.” The idea being that those particular Judean leaders wished to be consulted concerning Yeshua’s claims. This prideful presumption of authority over God’s redemptive purposes is also common in many Christian communities today. Spiritual blackmail has become an artform in modern Christianity, and those who wield it do so with dire consequences.
25 Yeshua answered them, “I told you, and you don’t believe, trust, are not persuaded (pisteuo[G], he’emun’tem[H]); the toil, occupation, works, deeds (ergon) that I do in the Name (b’Sheim[H]) of My Father (Pater[G], Aviy[H]), these testify, bear witness (martureo[G], l’eidot[H]) of Me.
Yeshua’s response points them to the many things He has said that prove His identity as King Messiah. He goes on to qualify His position by explaining that their failure to recognize and publicly acknowledge Him is due to their inability to believe, trust, that what they have heard Him say is evidence of His Messiahship. Therefore, He asks them to consider the miraculous signs that they have seen Him perform, which are in themselves testimony of His legitimacy as the promised King Messiah (ref. 5:36).
26 But you don’t believe, trust, are not persuaded (pisteuo[G], ta’amiynu[H]) because you are not of My sheep (probaton[G], mitzoniy[H]). 27 My sheep (probaton[G], tzoniy [H]) hear, listen to, receive (tishma’nah[H]) My voice, sound (phone[G], et koliy[H]), and I intimately know (ginosko[G], y’da’tiyn[H]) them, and they follow (akoloutheo[G]) Me;
“But you don’t believe” means that they don’t believe that Yeshua is the Messiah. The reason being that they have not accepted Him as God’s promised Shepherd and are therefore, not yet His sheep (ref. my article on John 10:1-21).
Given that this dialogue takes place in Jerusalem several months after the events of John 9:1-10:21, it can be deduced that those listening are religious Jews who have returned to Jerusalem for Chanukah and have heard Yeshua speak before concerning the figurative mashal (parable) of Shepherd and sheep (John 10:3, 4, 14, 16 etc). Thus, they are hearing Him say these words again, having already heard them following Sukkot in the Temple courts, as recorded in verses 1-21 of this chapter.
Yeshua has offered many opportunities for the sheep of Israel to believe in Him and listen to His voice. He stands before the people as both Redeemer and Prophet, warning them:
“Oh come, let us worship and bow down; let us kneel before the LORD, our Maker! For He is our God, and we are the people of His pasture, and the sheep of His hand. Today, if you hear His voice, do not harden your hearts, as at Meribah, as on the day at Massah in the wilderness,” -Tehillim (Psalm) 95:6-8 (ESV)
28 and I give life (zoe[G], chayeiy[H]) without end (aionios[G], olam[H]) to them, and they will never be destroyed (apollumi[G]) into (eis[G]) the (ho[G]) unbroken age (aion[G]); and no one will seize (harpazo[G]) them out of My hand (miyadiy[G]). 29 The Father (Ho-Pater[G], Ha-Av[H]), Who has given (n’tanan[H]) them to Me, is greater (gadol[H]) than all; and no one is able to seize (harpazo[G]) out of the hand (miyad[H]) of the Father (Ho-Pater[G], Ha-Av[H]). 30 I and My Father (Aniy v’Aviy[H]) we are (anachnu[H]) one, a complex unity (echad[H]).”
“No one will seize them out of My hand” Those who receive Messiah are locked in the grip of His Salvation. Once secure no sheep belonging to the Shepherd can be seized away. Furthermore, “The Father, Who has given them to Me, is greater than all; and no one is able to seize out of the hand of the Father…” God the Father, in Whom God the Son takes hold of the sheep, is greater than all, immutable, unconquerable. Thus, there is a doubling of grip, a Hebrew idiom denoting a firmly established truth. The believer (sheep) is secure within security. Therefore, Yeshua explains, “I and the Father are echad, a complex unity”.
“31 What then shall we say in view of these things? If God is for us, who can be against us? [a] 32 He who did not spare His own Son but gave Him up for us all, how shall He not also with Him freely give us all things? 33 Who shall bring a charge against God’s elect? It is God who justifies. [b] 34 Who is the one who condemns? It is Messiah,[c] who died, and moreover was raised,[d] and is now at the right hand of God and who also intercedes for us. 35 Who shall separate us from the love of Messiah? Shall tribulation, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or danger, or sword? 36 As it is written,
“For Your sake we are being put to death all day long;
we are counted as sheep for the slaughter.”[e]
37 But in all these things we are more than conquerors through Him who loved us. 38 For I am convinced that neither death nor life, nor angels nor principalities, nor things present nor things to come, nor powers, 39 nor height nor depth, nor any other created thing will be able to separate us from the love of God that is in Messiah Yeshua our Lord.”- Romans 8:31-39 Tree of Life Version (TLV)
a. Romans 8:32 cf. Ps. 118:6.
b. Romans 8:34 cf. Isa. 50:8-9.
c. Romans 8:34 Some mss. read Messiah Yeshua.
d. Romans 8:34 Some mss. add from the dead.
e. Romans 8:36 Ps. 44:23(22)(43:23 LXX); cf. Zech. 11:4, 7.
Tree of Life Version (TLV)
Tree of Life (TLV) Translation of the Bible. Copyright © 2015 by The Messianic Jewish Family Bible Society.
31 Some of the Jewish religious leaders, Judeans (Ioudaios[G], Yehudiym[H]) picked up stones again to stone Him (Yeshua[H]). 32 Yeshua answered them, “I showed you many good, perfect, pure (toviym[H]) works (ergon[G]) from the Father (Ho-Pater[G], Ha-Av[H]); for which of them are you stoning Me?” 33 Some of the Jewish religious leaders, Judeans (Ioudaios[G], Yehudiym[H]) answered Him, “For a good, perfect, pure (toviym[H]) work (ergon[G]) we do not stone You, but for blasphemy; and because You, being a man (anthropos[G], adam[H]), make Yourself God (Theos[G], Elohiym[H]).”
Note that only some of the religious leaders picked up stones to stone Yeshua. Verse 42 clearly shows that many others were in favour of Yeshua and would not have allowed a stoning to take place.
Yeshua offers for evidence of His claim to be echad (a complex unity) with the Father, the miraculous signs that testify to His being the promised King Messiah Imanu-El (With us God).
“but for blasphemy; and because You, being a man, make yourself God” Many claim that Yeshua never said He was God with us. The text of the New Testament notes on many occasions that the Jews of the first century clearly understood Yeshua to be making that very claim. To say “I and the Father are One” is to claim deity. Therefore, the only question remains, will we accept that Yeshua is Imanu-El (God with us), or not?
34 Yeshua answered them, “Has it not been written in your Torah[H] (Tanakh[H], OT), “I have said “You are elohiym[H] (judges, rulers, gods)35 If He called them gods, judges, rulers (elohiym[H], theos[G]), to whom the Word, Essence, Substance (Ho-logos[G], Ha-Davar[H]) of the God (Ho-Theos[G], Ha-Elohiym[H]) came (and the Writings [graphe[G], ketuviym[H]] cannot be undone [luo[G]]), 36 do you say of Him, whom the Father (Ho-Pater[G], Ha-Av[H]) sanctified, set apart (hagiazo[G], kidsho[H]) and sent (vayishlacheihu[H]) into the world (kosmos[G], la’olam[H]), ‘You are blaspheming,’ because I said, ‘I am (Aniy[H]) a Son of the God (Ho-Theos[G], Ben-Elohiym[H])’?
Take careful note that the same Davar (Word, Yeshua) Who Yeshua refers to here, “If He called them gods, judges, rulers (elohiym[H], theos[G]), to whom the Word, Essence, Substance (Ho-logos[G], Ha-Davar[H]) of the God (Ho-Theos[G], Ha-Elohiym[H]) came…” Is standing before them. He is offering them an opportunity to conclude rightly.
When Hezekiah the prophet speaks to Israel saying “Your God” he is not distancing himself from relationship to God. The phrase “Your God” is often used by Hebrew speakers to challenge the hearer to take ownership of their common bond. Likewise, Yeshua (Jesus) uses the phrase “Your Torah” (John 8:17; 10:34; 18:31). He does not mean to deny His ownership of the Torah, after all He is the Author and goal of the Torah (which in this context refers to the Tanakh rather than the five books of Moses alone), rather He means to stir in them a sense of right identity and ownership with regard to the Spirit of the Torah and the bond shared in the knowledge of God by every Jew who observes the Torah.
“I have said “You are elohiym” Yeshua is quoting Psalm 82 and is therefore, using the noun Torah to refer to the wider body of inspired Scripture rather than to the five books of Moses alone. This remains common practice today among observant Jews. Therefore, context informs meaning in the use of the noun Torah.
As is true of all rabbinic quotations the full context of Psalm 82 is invoked in the quoting of a small part of it. Yeshua is making a drash (comparative teaching) from this verse and its contextual meaning within the Psalm.
Tehillim (Psalm) 82 reads this way:
“1A Psalm of Asaph (Gatherer).
The elohiym (judges, plural) are in the congregation of El (God, singular);
He yishpot (judges) among elohiym (judges, gods, rulers, plural).
3How long will you judge unjustly, and accept the persons of the wicked? Selah (pause and contemplate it).
4Defend the poor and fatherless, do justice to the afflicted needy.
Deliver the poor and needy: rid them out of the hand of the wicked.
5They know not, neither will they understand; they walk on in darkness: all the foundations of the earth are shaking.
6I have said “You are elohiym (judges, rulers, gods); and all of you are children of Elyon (Supreme God, Most High).
7Indeed, k’adam for humanity temutun you shall die uche’achad and as one of hasariym the princes tilpolu you will be cast down.
8Arise O God, judge the earth: for You shall inherit all nations.”
-Tehillim (Psalm) 82 Author’s translation
In the context of Psalm 82, God El (singular) stands in the midst of the congregation of the judges, rulers (elohiym: plural) of Israel. They have been appointed judges of the people in keeping with that attribute of God that exhibits His divine judgement. Therefore, the Hebrew word elohiym (gods, judges, rulers) is used to show the intrinsic connection between the Elohiym (God, The Judge) and the justice that He expects human rulers (in this case specifically rulers of Israel) to outwork in His likeness.
Yeshua quotes Psalm 82 to certain Jewish “Judges”, spiritual leaders (elohiym, rulers) of His day in response to their accusing Him of blasphemy for claiming to be a Son of God. For Yeshua to claim to be the Son of God is tantamount to saying He is the judge appointed by God. In response to the accusation of blasphemy Yeshua uses the Psalm to remind those who are accusing Him that they, as judges, spiritual rulers of Israel, were called in the likeness of God, to make right judgements as elohiym (judges, rulers), and to recognize that Yeshua is both a son of God (ben Elohiym) like them, and in addition He is the Son of God (Ha-Ben Elohiym), the Judge.
37 If I do not work at the occupation, works (ergon[G]) of My Father (Aviy[H]), do not believe, trust, be persuaded in (pisteuo[G], ta’amiynu[H]) Me; 38 but if I do His works, though you do not believe, trust (pisteuo[G], ta’amiynu[H]) Me, believe, trust (pisteuo[G], ta’amiynu[H]) the works, so that you may intimately know (teid’u[H]) and understand, have faith (ta’amiynu[H]) that in Me (kiy-viy[H]) is the Father (Ho-Pater[G], Ha-Av[H]), and I (va’Aniy[H]) in Him (bo[H]).”
Yeshua could have gotten angry with those who disbelieved and dismissed their ignorant hatred of Him but instead He desperately tries to convince them to consider the miraculous signs He has performed as evidence of Who He is so that they might come to an intimate and saving knowledge of Him, seeing the Father in the Son, and the Son in the Father.
39 Therefore they were seeking again to lay hold of (piazo[G]) Him (Yeshua[H]), and He eluded their grasp.
As before in the court of the women (8:59) when Yeshua alluded capture, so again here it seems likely that many present enabled Yeshua to escape the grasp of those few who wanted to kill Him for His perceived blasphemy. From the beginning many Jews were for Yeshua.
40 And He went away again beyond Ha Yarden[H] (the descender, Jordan) to the place where Yochanan[H] (YHVH is gracious, John the Immerser) was first performing tevilah[H] (ritual immersion, baptizing), and He was staying there.
There is a sense of connection between the region of the Yarden, Yochanan the Immerser’s ministry and Yeshua. Yeshua returned to that place where Yochanan the Immerser had first said of Him:
“Joh 1:26 Yochanan (John the Baptist) answered them, saying, “I immerse (Baptizo[G], Tebiyl[H]) with water: but there is one standing among you, Whom you don’t know; Joh 1:27 It is He, Who coming after me is preferred, ranked before me, whose sandal straps I am not worthy to untie. Joh 1:28 All (Kol[H]) These things were done in Beth-Anya[A] Bethany (House of Answering) beyond Yarden (Jordan, descender, the river) where Yochanan[H] (YHVH is gracious, John the Baptist) was immersing (Baptizo[G], Tebiyl[H]). Joh 1:29 The next day Yochanan[H] (John the Baptist) saw Yeshua[H] (Iesous[G], Jesus, Joshua) coming to him, and said, “Behold, see, perceive, pay attention to, examine (Eido[G], Hineih[H]) the Lamb (Amnos[G], Sheh[H]) of the God (Ho-Theos[G], Ha-Elohim[H]) Who takes away, carries away, raises up, causes to cease (Airo[G]) the sin, missing the mark, error, violation, offence (Hamartia[G], Chata’t[H]) of the world (Ho-Kosmos[G], Ha-Olam[H]).” Joh 1:30 This is He of Whom I said, “After me comes a man Who is before, in front of (Emprosthen[G]) me: for He was before me. Joh 1:31 And I knew Him not: but in order (Hina[G]) that He should be made manifest, visible, known (Phaneru[G]) to Israel (Yisrael[H]), therefore I am come immersing (Baptizo[G], Tebiyl[H]) with water. Joh 1:32 And Yochanan[H] (John the Baptist) bore witness (Martureo[G]), saying (lego[G] from logos), “I saw the Spirit, Wind, Breathe (Pneuma[G], Ruach[H]) descending from the heavens like a dove, and it abode with, remained (Meno[G]) upon Him.” Joh 1:33 And I knew Him not: but He that sent me to immerse (Baptizo[G], Tebiyl[H]) with water, the same said to me, “Upon Whom you shall see the Spirit, Wind, Breathe (Pneuma[G], Ruach[H]) descending, and remaining, abiding with (on) Him, the same is He Who immerses (Baptizo[G], Tebiyl[H]) with the Holy Spirit, Wind, Breathe (Pneuma-Hagios[G], Ruach Ha-Kodesh[H]). Joh 1:34 And I saw, and bear witness (Martureo[G]) that this is the Son of the God (Ho-Uihos Ho-Theos[G], Ben-Ha-Elohim[H]). Joh 1:35 Again the next day after that Yochanan[H] (John the Baptist) stood, alongside two of his disciples (Talmidim[H]); Joh 1:36 And looking upon Yeshua[H] (Iesous[G], Jesus, Joshua, YHVH Saves) as He (Yeshua[H]) walked, he (John the Baptist) said, “Behold, see, perceive, pay attention to, examine (Eido[G], Hineih[H]) the Lamb (Ho-Amnos[G], Ha-sheh[H]) of the God (Ho-Theos[G], Ha-Elohim[H])!” -Yochanan (John) 1:26-36 (Author’s translation)
41 Many came to Him and were saying, “While Yochanan[H] (YHVH is gracious, John the Immerser) performed no miraculous sign (ot[H]), yet everything Yochanan[H] (YHVH is gracious, John the Immerser) said about this man was true (emet[H]).” 42 Many believed, trusted, put their faith (pisteuo[G], vaya’amiynu[H]) in Him in that place (Ba-Makum[H]).
“Many put their faith in Him…” At this point in His ministry those who had put their trust in Yeshua now numbered in the thousands. It is utter nonsense to blame the entire first century Jewish populace for Yeshua’s death. As is the case today, a small minority in power held sway. Therefore, the governing bodies both Roman and Jewish allowed an illegal trial to take place and enforced an unjust death sentence, and carried it out against Yeshua. Thus, under Roman occupation and religious tyranny the common people of Israel were powerless to prevent Yeshua’s death, and in turn, neither the governments of this world nor any power in the heavens or on the earth were able to prevent His resurrection.
Copyright 2020 Yaakov Brown