Righteous actions are not the means by which the wife has prepared herself, rather they are the fruit of her having been justified by the shed blood of the Lamb. In other words, her preparation was given to her and she acted accordingly in anticipation of her wedding. This is how we are to live as Messiah
followers clothed in His right action and gifted with the strength to act rightly. How do we prepare ourselves? By allowing Him to prepare us.
Revelation 19 begins with a universal rejoicing among the heavenly host and the set apart ones at the destruction of the great harlot Babylon, the resurrected ancient city at the centre of the beast’s empire (19:1-10). Next comes the description of the white horse and its rider Who is Faithful and True (19:11-13). Then the hostile powers (enemies of G-d and His people) gather to fight against the conquering Messiah (19:19). Finally comes the defeat of the opposing forces, the casting of the beast (Seat of power of the evil empire) and its false prophet (Anti-Messiah) into the lake of fire (eternal punishment) and the slaughter of those who remain (19:20-21).
Rev 19:1 After these things, I heard a great voice (singular: Heb. Equivalent - Kol) in heaven, a multitude (plural) were shouting, Hallelujah (Shine out Praise to the L-rd) Salvation and k’vod (glory), and honour and power be unto HaShem (YHVH: Merciful) our G-d (Elohim: Judge).
“After these things” means after the events of the city of Babylon’s destruction recorded in chapter
“I heard a great voice” which is singular, conveys the sense of unity in the collective angelic voices of
heaven. The Hebrew equivalent Kol means, “voice or sound.”
“Hallelujah” is transliterated here as a contraction made up of the Hebrew words Halal (Shine,
Praise, Proclaim) and Yah (Part of the Divine Name YHVH). This is one of many instances in
Revelation where it appears that a Hebrew original text is being translated into Greek and having
come across a non-transferable word in the Hebrew the Greek translator has chosen simply to
transliterate the Hebrew using Greek characters. The phrase, “Hallelu Yah” is found 22 times in the
Psalms but not as a contraction. Psalms 113 to 118 are known as the great Hallel, “The great Praise,”
a title that points prophetically to this final great proclamation of G-d’s faithfulness and justice. The
contraction is found 4 times between verses 1 and 6 of the current passage of Revelation.
Judaism understands the phrase, “Hallelu Yah” to be the greatest of the defining phrases which begin each of the 10 styles of songs in the Psalms:
“The book of Psalms consists of ten sorts of songs, but HalleluYah is the greatest of them, because it comprehends the name (YHVH) and praise in one word.” –Yalkut Simeoni, par. 2. fol. 89. 1. T. Bab. Pesachim, fol. 117. 1.
Given that the Talmudic writings postdate Yochanan’s writing, it seems that the Biblical phrase, “Hallelu Yah” was later used by the rabbis’ in its contracted form following the Greek/Hellenistic usage. Hence the above quote sees it as a single word rather than a phrase.
The threefold attributes of G-d, Salvation (Yeshua), K’vod/glory (Ruach Ha-Kodesh) and Strength
(HaShem) are linked to the formula, “HaShem (Merciful) Elohim (Judge)” and provide a
Literary platform for expounding the merciful justice of G-d.
Rev 19:2 For true (emet: reliable) and righteous are His judgments: for He has judged the great
harlot, which did corrupt the earth with her adultery (idolatry), and has avenged the blood of His
servants which she has shed.
The first “for” acts as qualification for the cry of praise that begins this chapter. The phrase, “True and
righteous are His judgements” is heard slightly differently by the Hebrew ear. The Greek alethinos
(truth) corresponds to reality itself (as in Greek thought), however the Hebrew emet (truth) is qualified
by reliability, that is, it is founded on the premise that G-d exists and is absolutely trustworthy. The,
“G-d of truth” (Elohim emet: Deut. 32:4; Psalm 31:5; Isaiah 65:16) is not the G-d that verifies human
concepts of truth, but the G-d Who shows Himself trustworthy in relationship to covenant. Therefore,
to the Hebrew, truth, while absolute, is also relational and has more in common with the core being
than it does with the mind alone.
The second “for” offers further proof of G-d’s worthiness by giving an example of the righteous
judgement that has taken place. He has avenged the blood of His servants. He can be trusted.
Rev 19:3 And again they said, Hallelujah. And her smoke rose up for ever and ever.
“For Hashem has a day of vengeance,
A year of recompense for the cause of Zion.
9 Its streams will be turned into pitch,
And its loose earth into brimstone,
And its land will become burning pitch.
10 It will not be quenched night or day;
Its smoke will go up forever.” –Yishaiyahu/Isaiah 34:8-10
Notice the cause in Isaiah’s prophecy and the fact that the smoke rises eternally, the result of fire that
burns eternally (19:20).
Rev 19:4 And the twenty four elders and the four cherubim fell down and worshipped G-d Who sat
on the throne, saying, “Amen; Hallelujah.”
The twenty-four elders, who may represent the 12 tribes and the 12 disciples as a collective
priesthood, along with the four cherubim of the heavenly holy of holies, fall down before the throne
of G-d and in agreement with the praise that has already been given they use the psalmists formula,
“Amen, Hallelu Yah”.
“Blessed be HaShem (Merciful), the G-d (Judge) of Israel,
From everlasting even to everlasting.
And let all the people say, “Amen, Hallelu Yah!” –Psalm 106:48
Rev 19:5 And a voice came out of the throne, saying, Praise our G-d, all you His servants, and you
that fear (in holy awe of) Him, both small and great.
Numerous commentators claim that this voice cannot be that of the Messiah because of the words,
“Praise our G-d”. This seems at best a tenuous argument given that Yeshua identifies Himself as a
brother and son to those who keep the word of G-d.
“He answered and said to them, ‘My mother and My brothers are these who hear the word of G-d and
do it.’” –Luke 8:21
In fact, given that the voice comes out of the throne, it must be a voice that is intrinsically linked to
the G-d head. The Holy Spirit doesn’t qualify because He is spirit and the Father doesn’t qualify
because He is the subject of the praise, therefore the voice must be that of Yeshua.
“All you His servants, and you that fear (in holy awe of) Him” seems to distinguish between the angelic
host and human believers.
Rev 19:6 And I heard a voice like a great multitude, and a voice like many waters, and a voice like
mighty thunders, saying, “Hallelujah: for HaShem (Merciful) G-d (Judge) Almighty (Shaddai:
Notice that the voice (Heb. kol: sound) is, like a great multitude, like many waters, and like mighty
The trifold Holy Name formula used here tells us three important things about G-d. He is merciful
(HaShem), He is Just (Elohim) and He is almighty (Shaddai).
Why are we saying Hallelujah? The text puts it succinctly, “for HaShem (Merciful) G-d (Judge) Almighty
(Shaddai: omnipotent) reigns.” It’s not that He has all of a sudden begun to reign, rather it is a simple
statement of eternal fact, that is, eternal past, present and forever. He reigns!
Yeshua illuminates this understanding with the words:
“Now having been questioned by the P’rushim as to when the kingdom of G-d was coming, He (Yeshua)
answered them and said, ‘The kingdom of G-d is not coming with signs to be observed; nor will people
say, “Look, here it is!” or, “There it is!” For behold, the kingdom of G-d is in your midst.’”
Brothers and sisters, the kingdom of G-d is in our midst.
Rev 19:7 Let us be glad and rejoice, and give honour to Him: for the marriage of the Lamb is come,
and His wife (not bride) has made herself ready.
In contrast to the mourning of Babylon, the servants and children of HaShem will be glad and rejoice
and give honour to Him because the marriage of the Lamb has come and His wife (not bride) has made
Who is the wife and how has she made herself ready? Many scholars make a big deal out of the
distinction between Israel as G-d’s wife and the Church as Yeshua’s bride, as if G-d is somehow a
polygamist with a dissociative identity disorder. Yochanan is given the words of the present text to
illuminate the unity of the two distinct women (Metaphorical). We should remember that at this point
in the chronology of the Revelation all of the remnant of ethnic Israel had been redeemed, therefore
there is no longer a need to refer to ethnic Israel and the Church as separate entities. However, this
only becomes the case once ethnic Israel has been redeemed in its entirety (Revelation 11:13; Romans
11:26), prior to the judgement, and not before. With this in mind we’re able to take a fresh look at the
“The marriage of the Lamb is come, and His wife (not bride) has made herself ready.”
The Greek gune can be translated as bride or wife but is more commonly translated as wife (a woman
who is married). The Hebrew betrothal and marriage terms are more ambiguous, but suffice to say,
within the ancient Jewish betrothal customs and law, an engaged (betrothed) woman (bride to be) is
considered a wife in every way with the exception of cohabitation.
Ethnic Israel is often called G-d’s wife in the Tanakh, an allusion to her betrothal to Him in eternal
perpetuity (Isaiah 54:1-8; 62:4-5; Jeremiah 31:32; Ezekiel 16; Hosea). The Messianic community
(Ecclesia: Church) is in turn known as a bride to the Messiah (Matthew 22:1-14; 25:1-13; Mark 2:18-
20; John 3:28-30; Romans 7:1-4; 1 Corinthians 6:13-20; 2 Corinthians 11:2 and Ephesians 5:25-33).
The reason the Greek gune, wife (ethnic Israel) is used here in conjunction with the phrase, “made
herself ready”, which denotes a bride (Ecclesia: Church), is that following the redemption of ethnic
Israel (but not before) in Messiah Yeshua, G-d the Father has (post ethnic Israel’s redemption) made
ethnic Israel and the Ecclesia a unity. Therefore the marriage has one bride/wife (redeemed humanity)
and one groom/husband (G-d the Lamb).
Rev 19:8 And she was given fine linen, clean and white to wear: for the fine linen is the
righteousness (right actions: the result of justification) of the set apart ones.
Notice that the wife of the Lamb is given the right actions to wear. These actions are not the means
by which the wife has prepared herself, rather they are the fruit of her having been justified by the
shed blood of the Lamb. In other words, her preparation was given to her and she acted accordingly
in anticipation of her wedding. This is how we are to live as Messiah followers clothed in His right
action and gifted with the strength to act rightly.
“I will rejoice greatly in HaShem (Merciful),
My soul will exult in my G-d (Judge);
For He has clothed me with garments of Yeshua (salvation),
He has wrapped me with a robe of right action,
As a bridegroom adorns himself with a garland,
And as a bride adorns herself with her jewels.” –Yishaiyahu/Isaiah 61:10
Who is the wife? All who accept Messiah. And how do we prepare ourselves? By allowing Him to
Rev 19:9 And he said to me, write (ketvi), “Blessed are they which are called unto the marriage
supper of the Lamb.” And he said to me, “these are the true sayings of G-d.”
The he here is probably an angel of Yeshua, as qualified in the following verse. This makes sense given
that this is Yeshua’s revelation that Yochanan is writing. In the following verses Yeshua is referred to
as The Word (Heb. D’var) in correlation with John’s Gospel (John 1:1). What we are reading here is
The Living Word (d’var) Yeshua instructing Yochanan through His angel (messenger), to write (ketvi)
His revelation. By using the word, ketvi (write) Yeshua’s messenger affirms Yochanan’s role as a
recorder of ketvi (writing) that is part of the greater Ketuvim (writings) of HaShem.
When Yochanan is instructed by Yeshua to write (ketvi) it is for the purpose of emphasizing certain
points in the progression of the revelation in order to draw the reader’s attention to these key
elements. Up to this point in the text Yochanan has been specifically instructed to write what he is
seeing and hearing three times (Rev. 1:11, 19; chs. 2-3; 14:13) and not to write once (Rev. 10:4). Finally
in chapter 21:5 Yochanan is instructed by G-d to write the declaration of the new creation. In this
way the Bible as a whole ends with a beginning, all of us who are in Messiah will witness this new
The blessing of attending the Lamb’s wedding supper is the ultimate blessing of relationship in all its
perfection. Family, close friends and loyal servants are invited to weddings. The blessing is simply the
joy of being present with Yeshua in G-d.
Rev 19:10 And I fell at his feet, prostrating myself in reverence of him. And he said to me, “don’t
do that: I am your fellow servant, and of thy brothers and sisters that have the testimony of Yeshua
(Jesus): prostrate yourself in reverence of G-d: for the testimony of Yeshua is the spirit of prophecy.
“I fell at his feet to worship him. And he said to me, “don’t do that: I am your fellow servant, and of
your brothers and sisters” denotes Yochanan’s respect and awe of someone more powerful than
himself. It is not as some suppose, a case of Yochanan considering the messenger to be deity. The
purpose of the admonition is to warn the community of believers of the danger of worshipping angels
but it is not an indictment against Yochanan. Peter the Apostle experienced something similar when he was sent as a messenger (angel) to Cornelius:
“When Peter entered, Cornelius met him, and fell at his feet and prostrated himself in reverence of
Peter. But Peter raised him up, saying, ‘Stand up; I too am just a man.’” –Acts 10:25-26
The testimony of Yeshua is both the testimony of Yeshua Himself and the testimony concerning Him,
which is proliferated by His followers. Like the garments of white linen representing the righteousness
of the set apart ones, the testimony of Yeshua is something we have freely received from Him and
freely give to others. It is the testimony of His eternal nature, His earthly ministry and His saving
sacrificial death and resurrection, a testimony of hope and of a certain eternal future for all who
Therefore, “the testimony of Yeshua is the spirit of prophecy” because the living Word Yeshua is the
essence that holds all of G-d’s prophetic word together; the Word is felt, known, spoken, lived and
In the context of the present chapter it is the testimony of Yeshua revealed by Yeshua to Yochanan,
that Yochanan is recording as a testimony to the Ecclesia.
Rev 19:11 And I saw heaven opened, and behold a white horse; and He that sat upon him was called
Faithful and True (emet: reliable), and in righteousness (Justification) He does judge and make war.
2 Timothy 2:13 teaches us that we ought to, “expect the blessed fulfilment of our certain hope, which
is the appearing of the k’vod (glory and honour) of our great G-d and the appearing of our Deliverer,
Yeshua the Messiah.”
We are now reading about that very event, the second coming of Yeshua the Mashiyach.
“I saw heaven opened”. This is a cataclysmic event, hence the prequel, “write!” This is not the white
horse of previous chapters, rather it is the white (purity and righteousness) horse of the coming
Messiah. No one can be called Faithful and True but G-d Himself and G-d Himself can only ride a horse
in the person of Yeshua (G-d with us).
“In righteousness (Justification) He does judge and make war.” Apparently Yeshua is not, as some
foolishly teach, a pacifist. Or is the war metaphorical? Does He judge metaphorically? If my judgement
of you is a metaphor, what is it a metaphor for? If my war against you is a metaphor, what is it a
metaphor for? So many western Christians seem set on turning Yeshua into some sort of New Age
Guru, but the reality is that Yeshua is coming again, not as the suffering Messiah but as the
Warrior King Messiah. He is returning to judge and make war against evil and all who practice it.
The idea of G-d being a G-d of war should not surprise the student of the Scriptures. The Tanakh (OT)
describes HaShem (YHVH) as being victorious in war over His enemies numerous times (Isaiah 13; 31;
63:1-6; Ezekiel 38-39; Joel 3:9-21; Zechariah 14).
“Who is the King of glory? HaShem strong and mighty, HaShem mighty in battle!”—Psalm 24:8
When Yeshua returns He will both reward the righteous and conquer and judge the wicked (Matthew
13:41-42; 25:41-46; Romans 2:5-6, 8-9, 16; 1 Thessalonians 1: 7-9; 2:8).
“The Son of Man will send forth His messengers, and they will gather out of His kingdom all stumbling blocks, and those who commit lawlessness, and will throw them into the furnace of fire; in that place there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.” –Matthew 13:41-42
The first time, G-d didn’t send His Son into the world to judge but to save (John 3:17). However G-d
has entrusted all judgement to Yeshua the Son (John 5:22), this will take place at Yeshua’s second
Rev 19:12 His eyes were as a flame of fire (1:14), and on His head were many crowns; and He had a
Name written (katuv), which no one knew, but He himself.
His eyes like flames of fire symbolize refining judgement, sacrifice, fore vision, penetrating vision. The
many crowns on His head symbolize His rule over all the kingdoms of the earth.
The name that is written, (katuv: engraved) is not known to anyone but Yeshua and of course G-d the
Father and the Spirit. The phrase, “no one knew” refers to created things. Some have suggested that
this name may be the unpronounceable name of HaShem YHVH, unknown in that its correct
pronunciation can’t be determined, however I find this doubtful. I believe it’s foolish to attempt to
know what is unknowable, it is a futile act of prideful rebellion, “a grasping at the wind.” I suggest
embracing the mystery of this unknown name (Deut. 29:29).
Rev 19:13 And He was clothed with a garment immersed in blood: and His name is called The Word
The garment immersed in blood is symbolic of the sacrificial blood shed by Messiah at Calvary. The
fact that the garment is immersed denotes baptism, death and resurrection. It can’t be the blood
of enemies because the sword of judgement has yet to be unleashed in the chronology of this passage.
Also, while G-d wars against evil, He does not wear the blood of His enemies like some gaudy prize.
Those who doubt Yochanan’s authorship are hard pressed to explain away the familiar title “The
Word of G-d” (John 1). This title is used a number of times in the Revelation (Rev. 1:2; 6:9; 20:4).
Rev 19:14 And the armies of heaven followed Him upon white horses, clothed in fine linen, white
These are the angelic heavenly armies alluded to in the title, “Adonai tz’vaot” (Rev. 1:8).
“Adonai my Elohim will come, and all the holy ones with Him.” –Zechariah 14:5
Yeshua initially returns with angels (Mk 8:38; Luke 9:26; 1 Thessalonians 3:13; 2 Thessalonians 1:7),
however believers too will accompany Him (but no from the heavens) as He overcomes His enemies
(Rev. 17:14; Matthew 24:31; 1 Thessalonians 4:15-17).
Rev 19:15 And out of his mouth came a sharp sabre (rhomphaia), that with it He should smite the nations:
We should note that the sword issuing from Yeshua’s mouth is not the short blade of Hebrews 4:12
(machaira, long knife or short sword), but rather a long sword, rhomphaia, probably a sabre, denoted
by the fact that the Greek word rhomphaia is of foreign origin. The only use of the Greek word
rhomphaia (Sabre, long sword) outside of the scroll of Revelation is in Luke 2:35, where it refers to the
sword of judgement meant for humanity that is instead received by the Messiah in our place and thus
will pierce the breath (ruach) of Miriam (Mary), Yeshua’s mother and reveal the hearts of many.
Within the scroll of Revelation the same word is used 6 times and is seen as a weapon of judgement (Rev. 2:16; 6:8; 19:15, 21).
“Therefore, turn from these sins. Otherwise, I will come to you quickly and make war against them (those in the congregation committing wilful sin) with the sword (sabre, long sword) of my mouth.” –Revelation 2:16
The sword (sabre) coming out of the rider’s mouth is the same sabre referred to in Rev. 1:16; 2:12, 16;
6:8; 19:15, 21 and specifically as a sword of judgement (punishment) in Rev. 2:16; 6:8; 19:15, 21.
The sword is an aspect of the Word, whereas the rider is The Word in entirety. Therefore we should
see the sword of the present text as the aspect of the Word that brings judgement and righteous
punishment. The same sword G-d brought to bear on Miriam’s very breath, her Son Yeshua, Who
himself was born into time of the seeded ruach and the egg of a human woman. This sword of just
punishment was received by Yeshua on behalf of all those who would receive Him, now He wields it
against all those who have stubbornly and perpetually refused Him.
We can conclude that the short sword of Hebrews 4:12 is the surgical aspect of The Word (Yeshua)
that discerns and divides between intimate details of the human soul so as to perfect the believer,
whereas the sabre or long sword that issues from The Word’s mouth is the sword of war, of
punishment, vengeance and just judgement against those who resist G-d.
And He shall rule them with a rod of iron: and He treads the winepress of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty G-d.
“I will declare the decree: HaShem has said unto me, ‘You are my Son; this day have I begotten you.
8 Ask of me, and I shall give you the nations for your inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for your possession. 9 You shall break them with a rod of iron; You shall dash them in pieces like a potter's vessel. 10 Be wise now therefore, O you kings: be instructed, you judges of the earth.
11 Serve HaShem with fear (Awe), and rejoice with trembling. 12 Kiss the Son, lest he be angry, and you perish from the way, when his wrath is kindled but a little. Blessed are all they that put their trust in Him.’” –Tehillim/Psalm 2:7-12
Notice that the Greek text quotes the Hebrew which says, “break them” rather than, “rule or
shepherd”. In this context, “rule” means, “Dominate” or, “Have authority over”.
See: Revelation 14:19
Rev 19:16 And He has on His vest (over His breast) and on His thigh (In Judaism the right thigh would
be presumed) a name written, Melakhay ha’melakhim KING OF KINGS, AND Adonai ha-adonay’im
L-RD OF LORDS.
The formula, “King of Kings and L-rd of lords” is a title given to G-d. This title denotes Yeshua’s G-d
given authority over all things and identifies Him as G-d with us. The phrase, “Mi Melekh Melakhay
ha’melakhim KING OF KINGS” is a familiar one for the observant Jew, who chants it each Shabbat eve
in a traditional song called Shalom Aleichim (Peace be with you). The Shabbat evening prayer vigil is
called Kabalat Shabbat (receiving the Sabbath/Rest): Those who have received Him find peace in the
title, “King of kings and L-rd of lords”.
Why is this name written over the breast (vest) and on the thigh? The answer may be in the wave and
contribution offerings practiced by Israel following the ram offering of ordination for the
priesthood, which is made at the instruction of G-d (Exodus 29:27; Lev. 7:34; 9:21; 10:14-15; Numbers
“Then you shall take the breast of Aaron’s ram of ordination, and wave it as a wave offering before
HaShem; and it shall be your portion. 27 You shall consecrate the breast of the wave offering and the
thigh of the contribution offering which was waved and which was offered from the ram of ordination,
from the one which was for Aaron and from the one which was for his sons.” –Exodus 29:26-28
This passage describes the practice regarding the ordination offering of the priesthood and the
contribution that the priests received from the peace offerings of the community of Israel. We know
that Yeshua unites both the Kingship and Priesthood of Israel and that He is the Ram of the Binding of
Isaac, known to have become the Pesach Lamb of G-d’s redemptive plan for Israel and the nations.
Therefore the title, “King of kings and L-rd of lords” appears over the breast and upon the thigh as a
symbol of the unity of Israel’s Priest and King. The location also indicates peace toward those who
belong to the Priest’s family (the priesthood of all believers). In addition to this the wave and
contribution offerings were to be consumed in a holy place, which stands in stark contrast to the
enemies of G-d who are about to be struck down by the rider and consumed by unclean birds in an
unclean place where bodies lay unburied above the ground and outside the camp of Israel.
Rev 19:17 And I saw a messenger standing in the sun; and he cried with a loud voice, saying to all
the fowls that fly in the midst of heaven, Come and gather yourselves together unto the feast of
the great G-d;
The position of this messenger at the centre of the sun (being the brightest luminary in the mid
heaven) probably denotes the authority of this angel over the birds flying in mid heaven, which can
be interpreted both literally and metaphorically.
The imagery that follows is from is taken from Ezekiel 39:17-20, however, the use of the imagery from
the destruction of Gog and Magog doesn’t necessarily infer a direct correlation to those specific
entities. On the other hand, the battle of Har Megiddo and the destruction of the northern kingdoms
may be synonymous. Two accounts of two sets of armies approaching at the same time, in order to
attack Jerusalem from different positions with the purpose of overwhelming her. Keeping in mind that
Har Meggido is one of the mountains of Israel (Ezekiel 39:4).
“As for you, son of man, thus says HaShem G-d, ‘Speak to every kind of bird and to every beast of the field, “Assemble and come, gather from every side to My sacrifice which I am going to sacrifice for you, as a great sacrifice on the mountains of Israel, that you may eat flesh and drink blood. 18 You will eat the flesh of mighty men and drink the blood of the princes of the earth, as though they were rams, lambs, goats and bulls, all of them fatlings of Bashan. 19 So you will eat fat until you are glutted, and drink blood until you are drunk, from My sacrifice which I have sacrificed for you. 20 You will be glutted at My table with horses and charioteers, with mighty men and all the men of war,” declares the Lord G-d.” –Ezekiel 39:17-20
This is a feast of the great G-d and not the marriage feast of the Lamb. This feast is for the birds of the
air who will feast greatly because the judgement of G-d will be universal (with the exception of
Those invited to the marriage feast of the Lamb are blessed, but those who refused His invitation are
cursed. This is an extension of the blessing and cursing set before Israel in ancient times (Deut. 11:26).
The armies of the earth were gathered to the location of Har-Megiddo on their approach to Jerusalem,
now the birds are called to gather and feed on the aftermath caused by G-d’s sword of judgement.
Rev 19:18 That you may eat the flesh of rulers (kings), and the flesh of captains, and the flesh of
mighty men, and the flesh of horses, and of them that sit on them, and the flesh of all humanity,
both free and slave, both small and great.
This judgement, which emulates that of Ezekiel, is universal, affecting every class of human being from
the greatest to the least (believers are not included).
Rev 19:19 And I saw the beast, and the kings of the earth, and their armies, gathered together to
make war against Him that sat on the horse, and against His army.
This is the gathering together spoken of in Revelation 16:16. They are gathered with the sole purpose
of making war against the Messiah Yeshua and His army.
Rev 19:20 And the beast was taken, and with him the false prophet that wrought miracles before
him, with which he deceived them that had received the mark of the beast, and them that
worshipped his image. These were both cast alive into a lake of fire burning with sulphur.
The beast, which is the seat of power of the evil empire, along with the anti-Messiah, the false prophet
are now thrown into the place of eternal punishment. They will later be joined by Satan when He is
cast into the same lake of fire and sulphur in Revelation 20:10. The fact that they’re cast alive into the
lake of fire denotes torment and reminds the reader that eternal punishment is a conscious torment.
The Bereshit Rabbah speaks of the torment of eternal punishment in the following way:
“When a man smells the smell of brimstone, why does his breath draw back at it? Because he knows
he shall be judged with it in the Olam Habah (world to come).” –Bereshit Rabbah, sect. 51. fol. 45. 4.
Rev 19:21 And the remnant were slain with the sabre of Him that sat upon the horse, the sabre
which proceeded out of His mouth: and all the fowls were filled with their flesh.
The remainder of the armies of the beast are slain by the judgement of G-d’s Word. There is no
mention of the human participants of this battle being cast into the lake of fire. This would indicate
that their deaths were physical and that like the rest of humanity they must face the final judgement.
The fact that the birds are filled with flesh is another allusion to the universal nature of the battle and
the incomparable number of casualties.
Yeshua refers to this feasting of the birds at the coming of the Son of Man:
“It will be just the same on the day that the Son of Man is revealed… And they asked Him, ‘Where,
Lord?’ And He said to them, ‘Where there is a dead body, there the vultures will be gathered.’”
–Luke 17:30, 37
“Wherever the corpse is, there the vultures will gather.” –Matthew 24:28
Following Biblical practice Judaism buries her honoured dead, however to be left unburied is a disgrace
which brings a curse on the land (2 Kings 9:34). In addition, being torn apart by animals is the ultimate
“And He will strike the earth with the rod of His mouth, and with the breath of His lips He will slay the
wicked.” –Isaiah 11:4
© Alastair Brown 2015