Like so many of the psalms, the weighty distant steps of the coming Messiah can be heard ringing through the hallways of history, approaching with glory, and “commanding the blessing!”
Regardless of when this psalm was penned in its final form, it is attributed to King David. Psalm 133 is one of the fifteen Songs of Ascents (Shir Ha-ma'alot), and one of the three Songs of Ascents consisting of only three verses (131; 134). It’s not known when David wrote this psalm, however, some suggest it was written on the occasion of his anointing as king in celebration of the people’s unification under his reign (2 Sam. 5:1), while others suggest it was written following the quelling of Absalom’s rebellion, when the tribes of Israel jostled for the honor of bringing David back to his rightful place in Jerusalem (2 Sam. 19:9). Still others make a more general and much more likely suggestion that he wrote it while observing Israel gathered together for one of the Regaliym/Aliyot (Pesach, Yom Kippur, Sukkot) festivals. In addition to these suppositions some scholars suggest that this psalm was added to the collection of psalms nearing the end of David’s life in approximately 1015 BCE.
The Jewish commentators Kimchi and Ben Melekh see this psalm as being prophetic of the times of the Messiah (yet future), and take it to be a prediction of the peace that will exist between the King Messiah and the High Priest of Israel. This is in keeping with the figurative typing of Joshua (Zechariah 6:11-13). In fact, Yeshua united the Kingship and Priesthood of Israel through His immersion (baptism), His death and resurrection, and sanctified these roles with the pre-existing priesthood likened to the order of Malkiy-Tzedek (My King of Righteousness): a perfect priesthood (Hebrews 7) that functions to reconcile all who believe to the Father, causing both Jew and Gentile to truly abide together in a union that is everlasting, purchased through the blood of the Messiah’s perfect substitutionary sacrifice.
The two figures of the oil running down Aaron’s beard and the dew upon Mt Hermon convey a sense of extravagant blessing and the empowering of God’s chosen people Israel (ethnic, religious). These Hebraic poetic couplets denote a firmly established future for the Jewish people, in fact, in the context of this psalm they reveal and established eternity. The imagery is more than simile, it is “ki” because of these similitudes that brothers and sisters dwell together in union.
There are many side rooms in this psalm that lead us to greater depths of understanding: each symbol and figure brings to life the intricate workings of God as He weaves together a picture of unity that surpasses even our greatest attempts at manufacturing oneness. The Hebrew poetic couplets further enforce the strength and certainty of these richly prophetic words, and remind us again of the everlasting value of the promises seeded into time and space by God through the mouth of His servant David, king of Israel, beloved of God.
Like so many of the psalms, the weighty distant steps of the coming Messiah can be heard ringing through the hallways of history, approaching with glory, and “commanding the blessing!”
133:1 Shir A Song ha-ma’alot of that which goes up, that which comes to mind, degrees, stairs, ascents; le’David attributed to David (Beloved of God). Hineih Behold, now, pay attention, mah how (what) tov good umah-nayim and how (what) delightful, pleasant(ness), lovely(ness) it is, shevet sitting, dwelling, remaining, abiding achiym brothers and sisters gam-yachad again, also, united, in union, alike, as one!
Another way to read this would be:
A song of the ascending of David: Look, now, what is this good, and what is this loveliness; it is brothers and sisters sitting together also in union.
Notice that the brothers and sisters are not merely sitting in close proximity but are sitting and are in union.
The Jewish sage Iben Ezra interprets “achiym” to refer specifically to priests (which is similar to the teaching of 1 Peter 2:9); the Jewish commentator Kimchi interprets “achiym” as the King Messiah and the priest together (which is similar to the teaching of Hebrews 7); and the Jewish commentator Yarchi, interprets “achiym” of the Israelites (which is consistent with the remainder of the psalm).
The 2nd century Aramaic Targum reads:
“1. A song that was uttered on the ascents of the abyss. Behold, how good and how pleasant is the dwelling of Zion and Jerusalem, together indeed like two brothers.”
The Targum understands well the locational aspect of this psalm by merging the latter similes of the Hebrew text with the opening clause. Where others have focused only on the unity aspect, and have thus, misunderstood the whole. The idea of ascending from the abyss is one of transcendent quality that alludes to the redemptive priestly work required in order for Godly union to be made manifest.
“Shir A Song ha-ma’alot of that which goes up, that which comes to mind, degrees, stairs, ascents; le’David attributed to David.” (133:1a.)
The opening clause can be understood in multiple ways, both spiritual (esoteric) and literal:
- A song concerning the thoughts (e.g. thinking “upward” toward the things of God) of David.
- A song sung by those ascending (in a redemptive or transcendent sense), penned by David.
- A song “spoken” (borrowed from the Aramaic Targum) as one (a priest) literally walked up the steps toward the Temple in Jerusalem, written and appointed for that occasion by king David.
One may also paraphrase the opening clause as a spiritual drash for all who believe:
“We each have a song that we offer up to the Father, a song that comes to mind as we ascend through the redemptive work of the King Messiah, a song that testifies of His love, sung by the beloved of God.”
However, the p’shat (plain meaning) of the text is locational, situational, and refers specifically to the ascent of the Temple mount in Jerusalem, in the land of Israel and as it relates to the Jewish (ethnic, religious, empirical) people, the elect (chosen) of God, through the priesthood and the redemptive, substitutionary sacrificial system. These words being, “of king David”, one of the most influential and prophetic kings of Israel’s history, and the one from whom the Messiah would come forth (with regard to His humanity).
“Hineih Behold, now, pay attention, mah how (what) tov good umah-nayim and how (what) delightful, pleasant(ness), lovely(ness) it is, shevet sitting, dwelling, remaining, abiding achiym brothers and sisters gam-yachad again, also - united, in union, alike, as one!” (133:1b.)
While the majority of English translations render “mah” as “how”, it seems equally likely and more colloquially intuitive to translate “mah” with regard to its common use as “what”.
Therefore, I prefer to read:
“Wow, look, pay attention, what goodness and what delight is this? Sitting, dwelling, even remaining, brothers and sisters, also, in union (or: also as one).”
In other words, “What is this incredibly beautiful and truly impossible thing I’m seeing? True Godly union between brothers and sisters.”
Notice that the text does not say simply that brothers and sisters dwelling is good and pleasant, rather it says that both dwelling and also union (oneness), is good and pleasant. Nor does the entirety of this psalm promote unity alone. Rather, it shows Godly unity to be the fruit of a priestly order via a sacrificial system of atoning substitution. Empowered by the Spirit (oil), which produces the fruit of unity.
Unity is not the goal. Messiah is the goal and unity is the fruit of Messiah at work in us through the anointing and empowering of the Holy Spirit. This spiritual principal which can be applied to all believers, is none the less first and foremost (in its plainest sense) specifically prophetic of Israel’s (ethnic, religious) future. As we will see from the latter verses, the blessing that results is locational, yet future, and for a specific people (Jews) in a specific land (Israel).
Good and Pleasant:
“Tov”, is good in the purest sense. Yeshua, revealing His own deity, said, “Why do you call me good, only God is good” (Mark 10:18). For something to be good in all its fullness is for it to be “On earth as it is in heaven” (Matt. 6:10).
“Nayim”, is pleasant to the olfactory sense (sense of smell). In other words, this will be pleasing not only based on sight but also on smell. This is why the psalmist goes on to use the fragrant anointing oil as a simile.
We note that the observing of this form of unity brings a sense of “tov” goodness, wellness, pleasure, and of “nayim” pleasing experience, delight etc. The unity described is in fact not truly achievable in a perpetual sense within a sin affected world, not even by the community of believers. Therefore, the unity described is intentionally and specifically prophetic. It is a unity that will be experienced at the coming of the King Messiah at the end of the age, and will be evidenced in the redeemed ethnic religious nation of Israel (and subsequently in all of redeemed humanity).
“Yachad” means union, unitedness, unity (noun masculine), together, all together, alike (adverb). It occurs 147 times in the Tanakh (OT) and is most often (124 times) used to denote togetherness, that is, individual persons, entities, or objects, together in close proximity. It is related to the Hebrew word “echad” meaning “one” which is used to describe the intimate union of man and wife “the two shall become one flesh” (Gen 2:24). However, “yachad” specifically refers to separate entities in proximity rather than denoting an intimate conjoined union. Thus, when a husband and wife are walking together they are yachad, but when they are joined in the sex act they are echad.
When we consider the weighty emotion brought to this psalm by David, who had many wives, concubines, sons and daughters, we must grapple with the turmoil he must have felt as he considered the disarray and division caused by his sin choices and looked forward in hope to a time when, through the Messiah, all of his family would live as one (unified) in the presence of God in the New Jerusalem, in the land of Israel.
This union that is being spoken of is not possibly except through the Messiah.
“Everyone who believes that Yeshua is the Messiah is born of God, and everyone who loves the Father loves the one born of Him. 2 We know that we love God’s children by this—when we love God and obey His commandments. 3 For this is the love of God—that we keep His commandments. And His commandments are not burdensome. 4 For everyone born of God overcomes the world. And the victory that has overcome the world is this—our faith. 5 Who is it that overcomes the world, if not the one who believes that Yeshua is Ben-Elohim?” -1 John 5:1-5 (TLV)
133:2 Ka-shemen Because, like, as oil (fatness) ha-tov the good, the best, al ha-rosh on the head, yareid running down, sinking down, marching down, descending al ha-zakan on the beard, zekan-Aharon beard of Aaron (Bright, Many Mountains, Light bearer, Ark bearer, latter days), shereid running down, sinking down, marching down, descending al piy on the collar, outer edges (mouth) midotayv of his robes, stature, measure, extent!
David now proceeds to explain not only what the union of brothers and sisters who dwell together is like, but also the mechanism and process required in order for the fruit of unity to be seen in Israel.
The Hebrew “Ka-shemen” is most often translated “Like oil”, however, the Hebrew “kiy” which begins the composite “Ka-shemen”, can be understood to mean, “because, as, like etc.” Therefore, we may read:
“Because the precious oil upon the head of Aaron runs down the beard, Aarons beard…”
In other words, the imagery is associated to the mechanism which perpetuates the peaceful dwelling together of brothers and sisters in unity. The images of oil on Aaron’s beard and dew on Mt Hermon are more than simile, they are the outworking of the blessing that brings about the unity observed by David in the first verse of this psalm, and in turn becomes witness to the locational blessing commanded by God in the last verse.
The poetic imagery used here is of great importance. The oil is not just oil but “The good oil” or “The precious oil”, and refers specifically to the mixture of oil assigned by God for use in anointing the Cohen Ha-gadol (The High Priest) and sprinkling on the priests. It was not to be used for any common purpose or by any common Israelite (Exodus 30:22-23).
The oil was to be poured upon the head of Aaron subsequent to the donning of the priestly garments, including the head covering (Lev. 21:10) and was to overflow to the very ends of the garments. It is interesting to note that Aaron was never to uncover his head or rend his garments (Lev. 21:10).
The specific event described here occurred only once. That is, it is specifically Aaron’s anointing that is described and likened to a time when brothers and sisters will dwell together in union. Aaron was the first Levitical High Priest and father of Israel’s subsequent Levitical priesthood. Therefore, this figure is not intended as a general image to be likened to every act of anointing ever performed, rather it specifically alludes to the anointing of Israel’s first Levitical High Priest Aaron, and to the mixture of oil used to anoint him. Therefore, failing to understand the context means misinterpreting the text and misunderstanding its application and future fulfilment.
Ka-shemen Because, like, as oil ha-tov the good, the best, al ha-rosh on the head, yareid running down, sinking down, marching down, descending al ha-zakan on the beard, zekan-Aharon beard of Aaron (Bright, Many Mountains, Light bearer, Ark bearer, latter days)… (133:2a.)
“shemen ha-tov”, the precious oil, is described as follows:
“23.“Take the finest spices: of liquid myrrh 500 shekels, and of sweet-smelling cinnamon half as much, that is, 250, and 250 of aromatic cane, 24.and 500 of cassia, according to the shekel of the sanctuary, and a hin of olive oil. 25.And you shall make of these a sacred anointing oil blended as by the perfumer; it shall be a holy anointing oil. 26.With it you shall anoint the tent of meeting and the ark of the testimony, 27.and the table and all its utensils, and the lampstand and its utensils, and the altar of incense, 28.and the altar of burnt offering with all its utensils and the basin and its stand. 29.You shall consecrate them, that they may be most holy. Whatever touches them will become holy. 30.You shall anoint Aaron and his sons, and consecrate them, that they may serve me as priests. 31.And you shall say to the people of Israel, ‘This shall be my holy anointing oil throughout your generations. 32.It shall not be poured on the body of an ordinary person, and you shall make no other like it in composition. It is holy, and it shall be holy to you. 33.Whoever compounds any like it or whoever puts any of it on an outsider shall be cut off from his people.’” -Shemot (Exodus) 30:23-33 (ESV)
The fine fresh olive oil smelled strongly of cinnamon (cassia being of the same family, a bark), myrrh, and an uncertain sweet aromatic cane, possibly from Sheba or some part of Arabia. It is perhaps for our own protection that the exact blend is impossible to fabricate today.
The perfumed anointing oil (being a symbol of the Holy Spirit), offers an opportunity for us to experience at very least in part the fragrant nature of the experience of Aaron. The Ruach (Spirit) of God is illuminated in the components of the perfumed oil. He is the fragrance of sweet salvation to those who are being redeemed.
We note that the oil of anointing was not poured over Aaron’s sons, though it was sprinkled on them. Thus, Aaron is “Ha-Cohein Ha-Mashiyah” (The Priest The Anointed), whereas subsequent priests experience “Meshuchiym” (Anointings) [Numbers 3:3]. Additionally, it was never to be used on the common Israelite. Therefore, the anointing in question is for priests alone, and more importantly, the fullness of that anointing is upon the head of the High Priest.
Therefore, in keeping with this imagery we are able to properly interpret the life of Messiah Yeshua, His unification of the Kingship and High Priesthood of Israel and His perfect Priesthood in the order of Melki-Tzedek. Ultimately, it is from the anointing of Messiah and through Him that all who believe become participants in the priesthood (1 Peter 2:9) that is offered to all according to the type or order of Melki-Tzedek (My King of Righteousness) [Hebrews 7]. This is not to say that anointing others with oil is in and of itself inappropriate, but simply that the anointing in question is intentionally specific and refers to a prefigure that illuminates the Messiah.
The text of Exodus details the dressing of Aaron in his High Priestly garments prior to his anointing. Further still, contrary to the depictions of this event in popular Christian art, we are not told that Aaron’s head dress was removed prior to anointing. Therefore, he must have been wearing the head covering (which symbolised the need for blood atonement) and the gold plate engraved with the words “Kadosh le’YHVH” Holy Unto The Lord.
The anointing oil runs down Aaron’s beard and over his shoulders, down his breast and to the very edges of his priestly garments:
“shereid running down, sinking down, marching down, descending al piy on the collar, outer edges (mouth) midotayv of his robes, stature, measure, extent!” (133:2b)
In order for the oil to reach the outer edges of Aaron’s robes, it must have been poured in copious quantity, and would have flowed over the stones on his shoulders engraved with the names of the tribes of Israel, over the breastplate and each of the precious stones engraved with the names of the tribes of Israel, down behind the breast plate over the uriym (lights) and tumiym (completions) which were tucked into a pocket behind the breastplate, over the blue outer garment, over the pure white linen garment, soaking through to his skin and symbolically covering every aspect of his priesthood and headship as the spiritual shepherd of Israel (Exodus 28). The obvious correlation to the ministry of the Messiah is to say the least, mind-blowing.
We must not cheapen our understanding of this imagery by seeing only a few drops of oil being applied to the head of a petitioner. The text denotes a flood of specifically composed fragrant anointing oil.
The oil is poured forth from a horn (Ram’s horn), thus signifying the One through Whom all believers would one day receive the promised Ruach Ha-Kodesh Holy Spirit (Yeshua being the substitutionary Ram of God and the horn being a symbol of His strength in redeeming Israel [Isaac]). The oil is poured over the head in order to convey the spiritual headship of the High Priest, and is therefore a prefigure of the Perfect Great High Priest Yeshua, the King Priest of the Perfect Priesthood (Hebrews 7).
What is more, all of this is preceded by Aaron and his sons participating in the offering of substitutionary sacrifice for the atonement of sin and a meal of matzot (unleavened bread) [Exodus 29]. Therefore, the anointing with the precious oil was not performed until right relationship with God had been established (at least symbolically). This of course is a prefigure of the body of Messiah broken for us (matzot) and the blood atonement purchased for us through Messiah’s blood poured out on the cross (rams).
The Holy Spirit (oil) was not poured out on the believing Jewish community until after Messiah’s return to the Father following His death and resurrection (Acts 2), nor is the Holy Spirit given to anyone who has not understood and received the saving work and Person of Messiah Yeshua (Jesus).
In one sense the outpouring of the Holy Spirit on the first century Jewish believers in Messiah Yeshua (Acts 2), is a foretaste of the ultimate manifestation of the unity of Israel (ethnic, religious) at the return of the Messiah. Both events are the literal outworking of the similes in the present psalm.
It’s important to note that while David alludes to the imagery of Aaron’s anointing, which occurred outside of the land of Israel following Israel’s escape from Egypt, he is none the less writing this psalm from his purview within the land of Israel and is therefore uniting the imagery of Aaron’s anointing with the anointing of the land from Hermon (in the north) to the mountains of Zion in the centre. David writes this psalm as a psalm of ascent (Aliyah: going up [to Zion, the Temple Mount in Jerusalem]), not just localised ascent to the Temple mount but also as an Aliyah psalm for all those who ascend three times a year to observe the Regaliym/Aliyot (Pesach, Yom Kippur, Sukkot) festivals. Thus, the fragrances of the festival foods and the offerings, both sacrificial and celebratory (freewill) is presupposed by the union of the two similes of the anointed High Priest and the anointed mountains of the land of Israel. The former having occurred immediately post bondage (in Egypt) and the latter being the hope of Israel’s future redemption through Messiah.
Aside from the depth of symbolism in the process of anointing Aaron, there is also the simple grandeur of the oil flowing over his head, stinging his eyes and soaking into his skin, beard, and garments.
In order to better understand the kinetic reality of the anointing of Aaron, I had myself anointed in a similar way and was stunned by the stinging sensation in my eyes as the oil made its way down my face. The pain was great, “What’s going on” I thought, “Shouldn’t this be an enjoyable pain free experience. Isn’t this supposed to represent the Holy Spirit being poured out on me? It’s killing my eyes, I can’t see… Wait a minute… I can’t see…”
It occurred to me that the Holy Spirit does not always make me feel comfortable, in fact, He often makes me feel uncomfortable. God is present in my discomfort, just as He is in my comfort. The eyes I use for seeing this world are stung by the presence of the Holy Spirit, but when I become accustomed to the oil I am able to see things that are not of this world, pure, eternal, unseen things.
There are those who claim that the manifestation of the gifts of the Holy Spirit are evidence of His abiding with a believer, however, Yeshua reminds us that “Many will say to Me on that day, ‘Lord, Lord, didn’t we prophesy in Your name, and drive out demons in Your name, and perform many miracles in Your name?’ Then I will declare to them, ‘I never knew you. Get away from Me, you workers of lawlessness!’” (Matt. 7:22-23 TLV)
I think (or should I say “Scripture teaches”), that the Holy Spirit is more often evidenced in the way we respond to suffering than He is in the ecstatic gifts that are often counterfeited by so many. In one sense, God is saying to Aaron the High Priest and to we who follow the High Priest Yeshua (The Suffering Messiah), “If you want to be a priest, you best get used to both the healing balm and the stinging pain of the present, overflowing Spirit of God.”
133:3 Ketal Because, like, as the dew, night mist of Chermon (Hermon, Sanctuary, devoted, dedicated for destruction) shereid running down, sinking down, marching down, descending al-Har-reiy on the mountains of Tziyon (Zion, Parched land)! Keey Because sham there tzivah commands, orders, charges, HaShem (YHVH, Mercy, The LORD) et (the) certain ha-berachah the blessing, prosperity, gift, treaty of peaceful Chayyim living, perpetual life, ad ha-olam going round, perpetually, as far as forever in the world (to come).
The Mt Hermon/mountains of Zion simile (literal and figurative mechanism) works perfectly alongside the imagery of the anointing oil running from Aaron’s head to the edges of his garments. In like fashion the dew of Hermon runs from the top of Israel’s northern border and down to the place where Israel collectively goes up to worship God during the Regaliym/Aliyot festivals. Thus, all Israel (the people) and all of her land, is covered by the dew of Hermon both literally and figuratively.
“There” is a locational term indicating the mountains of Zion, where the brothers and sisters of Israel (ethnic, religious) dwell together in unity.
“HaShem commands the blessing”. The blessing is commanded upon the mountains of Zion when Jews dwell there together as one (yachad). This is a prophetic statement. God is speaking into time and space an observation of the future redemption of the entire remnant of Israel (ethnic, religious), when, following the fullness of the nations, all of Israel (ethnic, religious) will be saved (Romans 11).
We note that the Hebrew text does not say, “There the Lord commands a blessing” but rather, “There the Lord commands the blessing.” The “berachah”, blessing, prosperity, gift, treaty of peace, is one that brings “chayim”, not life but living (plural, perpetual). Living that will be “ad ha-olam” going round in the world perpetually forever. The world being the Olam Haba (World to come).
Therefore, the text is not saying that wherever believers in general dwell together in unity that God will command a blessing, rather, it is saying that when Israel (ethnic, religious, empirical) dwell together through redemption and the anointing supplied by the King Priest Messiah, in the land (literal) of Israel (at the return of the Messiah), then and only then, there and only there, will God command and establish the blessing of everlasting life on the New Earth.
“Chermon” (Hermon), from charam, to dedicate someone or something to the afterlife or to death.
The Law of charam is expounded in Leviticus 27:28-29, and states that whatever is labelled as charam cannot be redeemed (bought back or ransomed out). In the Tanakh (OT) there are no instances of human beings designated as charam who aren't subsequently executed, however, there are a number of people who have names that are derived from this verb. Which may indicate that the verb once denoted salvation.
Not everything designated charam was automatically destroyed. In Numbers 18:14 HaShem declares “Every devoted thing (charam) in Israel is yours (Aaron and his sons) [see also Lev. 27:21 and Eze. 44:29]. When Joshua sacked Jericho, the whole city and all it contained (apart from Rahab and her house) was designated charam, yet the gold, silver, bronze and iron objects went into the tabernacle's treasury (Joshua 6:19).
Mt Hermon therefore, carries the symbolic meaning of being charam dedicated to the Lord unto the afterlife and is equally representative of salvation.
“Hareiy Tziyon”, the mountains of Zion (the parched land), also have significant figurative value and show Israel’s need for the mayim waters of chayim living. Waters that she receives through the dew that results from the charam (dedication) of her Messiah, and the salvation that results from His substitutionary sacrificial death and resurrection.
In addition to the profound poetic value of this simile there is the practical reality of the geography and climate of Israel:
Van de Velde writes in regard to his Travels (Bd. i. S. 97):
“What we read in the 133rd Psalm of the dew of Hermon descending upon the mountains of Zion, is now become quite clear to me. Here, as I sat at the foot of Hermon, I understood how the water-drops which rose from its forest-mantled heights, and out of the highest ravines, which are filled the whole year round with snow, after the sun's rays have attenuated them and moistened the atmosphere with them, descend at evening-time as a heavy dew upon the lower mountains which lie round about as its spurs. One ought to have seen Hermon with its white-golden crown glistening aloft in the blue sky, in order to be able rightly to understand the figure. Nowhere in the whole country is so heavy a dew perceptible as in the districts near to Hermon.”
Therefore, the simile is both powerfully figurative and practically literal.
Psalm 133, has been misused to claim an illegitimate unity over certain groups within the body of Messiah, devoid of respect for the plain meaning of the text as it applies to the brothers and sisters of Israel (ethnic, religious) and the contextual and locational elements in the text. In addition, and with great fervour it has been misused as an excuse for believers in general to demand a blessing from God based on their dwelling together, despite the fact that the blessing is for a specific people (The Jews), time, and in a specific location (The mountains of Zion in the land of Israel).
While it’s true that in some sense there is a principal here regarding unity and blessing for all believers, it is only the case in a secondary sense and must be made subject to the plain meaning of the text.
This psalm observes the ultimate union of the brothers and sisters of Israel (ethnic, religious) in the land of Israel, through an anointing that flows from the head of her priesthood (both literal and transcendent), and shows through the use of simile, those things that must take place in order for this union to be fully filled at the end of the age.
Therefore, David, by the Holy Spirit, employs the poetic imagery and occasion of the anointing of Aaron the High Priest alongside the majestic beauty and natural precipitation of Mt Hermon, in order to show both literally and figuratively, where and when God (YHVH: Mercy, the God of Israel [ethnic, religious]) will command the blessing of life everlasting upon the union made possible by His Son and empowered by His Holy Spirit poured out on Israel (and the nations).
Let us therefore, show due respect for the plain contextual meaning of this psalm by appropriately applying the principal of unity and ceasing to demand a temporal blessing where a locational (place, time, space) blessing upon a specific people (Jews) with an eternal purpose, is intended.
133:1 A Song of that which goes up, that which comes to mind, degrees, stairs, ascents; attributed to David, (the beloved of God). Behold, now, pay attention, how good and how delightful, pleasant, lovely it is, sitting, dwelling, remaining, abiding brothers and sisters again, also, united, in union, alike, as one! 133:2 Like oil the good, the best, on the head, running down, sinking down, marching down, descending on the beard, beard of Aaron (the bright one, of many mountains, a light bearer, an ark bearer, in the latter days), running down, sinking down, marching down, descending on the collar (mouth) of his robes, stature, measure, extent! 133:3 It is like the dew, night mist of Hermon, (a sanctuary, devoted, dedicated for destruction) running down, sinking down, marching down, descending on the mountains of Zion (Parched land)! Because there (the mountains of Zion) commands, orders, charges, HaShem (YHVH, Mercy, The LORD) (the) certain blessing, prosperity, gift, treaty of peaceful living, perpetual life, going round, perpetually, as far as forever in the world (to come).
2nd Century CE Aramaic Targum of Psalm 133:
“1. A song that was uttered on the ascents of the abyss. Behold, how good and how pleasant is the dwelling of Zion and Jerusalem, together indeed like two brothers. 2.Like the fine oil that is poured on the head, coming down on the beard, the beard of Aaron, that comes down to the hem of his garments. 3.Like the dew of Hermon that comes down on the mountains of Zion; for there the Lord has commanded the blessing, life forevermore.”
Copyright Yaakov Brown 2019