In fact, theology in the traditional Christian Scholarship (Post the original Jewish Ecclesia: Messiah following Jews) sense, does not exist in the Messianic Hebrew faith, because to the Messianic Jew belief not acted on is unbelief.
1After (meta[G]) these (tauta[G]) words, essences, things (ha-devariym[H]) Yeshua[H, A] (Iesous[G], YHVH Saves, Jesus, Joshua) was walking (peripateo[G], halakh[H]) in the land (b’eretz[H]) of the Galilee (ha-Galiyl[H], a circuit), for He was unwilling to walk (halokh[H]) in Judea (Ioudaia[G], b’Yehudah[H]) because the Judeans, religious Jews (Ioudaios[G], Ha-Yehudiym[H]) were seeking to kill Him (Yeshua[H, A]).
“After these things” Means after the making whole of the lame man on the Sabbath of Purim [John 5:5-16] (which will become poignant in verse 23), after the feeding of the 28,000 (5000 men) [John 6:1-15], after the sign of walking on water and calming the storm [John 6:16-21], after the profession of His identity as the true manna from the heavens [John 6:48-51] and the means of salvation for all who will believe…
The Hebrew text of the Ha-Brit Ha-Chadashah (NT) says “Achar ha-devariym” After these words, essences, things…
“Yeshua was walking” The Hebrew “halakh” means more than just “physical walking”, it means to walk with spiritual, religious, moral integrity according to the perfect practice of God’s word. In Judaism our “halakhah” the way we practically walk our faith is inseparable from our theology. In fact, theology in the traditional Christian Scholarship (Post the original Jewish Ecclesia: Messiah following Jews) sense, does not exist in the Messianic Hebrew faith, because to the Messianic Jew belief not acted on is unbelief (ref. the book of Yaakov [James]). Therefore, one could understand the text by way of remez (hint) drash (comparative teaching), to say “Yeshua’s halakhah was among the common Jewish people of the Galilee, for He was unwilling to practice the halakhah of religious hypocrites.”
Regardless, the reason “Yeshua was not willing to walk in Judea” is clearly stated in the text, it was because the Judean religious leaders “wanted to kill Him”, and while it was His intention to go to the cross, He was determined that His death happen at the “opportune time.” We note that His life was not taken from Him by the authority of men but was given of Him by the authority of God (John 10:17-18).
The sign/miracle that became the catalyst for the Religious leaders’ plan to kill Yeshua was the making whole of the man at Beit Chasda (House of kindness/practical love), because Yeshua had performed a miracle on the Sabbath (John 5:5-16). This is affirmed as we read on, in the discussion over Yeshua’s sanity and the hypocrisy of those who claim Moses as their guide and yet do not keep the Torah that Moses gave to them, albeit from God via Moses. How sadly ironic that the miracle which ignited such hatred toward Yeshua was performed in the House of Kindness by the Kindest man Who ever lived.
“Because of this therefore the Judeans, religious Jews were seeking all the more to kill Him, because He not only was breaking the Shabbat, but also was calling the God His own Father, making Himself equal with the God.” -John 5:18 Author’s translation
“for He was unwilling to walk in Judea because the Judeans, religious Jews, were seeking to kill Him.” We see here one of the many examples showing why it is foolish to translate the Greek Ioudaios as “Jews” in general. The context of this passage shows clearly that Yeshua was walking among Jews in the Galilee but did not walk among the Jews of the region of Judea because a group of religious Jews from Judea were intent on killing Him. Therefore, in the context of this passage all are Jews, some are Galileans, some Judeans, some religious, some secular, some of one sect, some of another, all Ioudaios but not all Ioudaios from the region of Ioudaia, though most made regular aliyah (going up) to Jerusalem in Judea for the three Regaliym (Pesach, Shavuot and Sukkot). It is the foolish general translational choice to equivocate all instances of Ioudaios, that has led to some of the most heinous anti-Semitic theology and action of the so called “Christian Church”. It shames the Name of Christ and has mislead countless people of genuine faith for millennia.
2 Now the feast (Chag[H]) of the Judeans, religious Jews (Ioudaios[G], Ha-Yehudiym[H]), the Feast (Chag[H]) of Sukkot[H] (Shelters), was near.
“Now the feast of the Judeans, religious Jews” Because all observant Jews (from all over Israel and not just from Judea) went up to this feast, the “Feast of the Judeans” here refers to a feast all Jews participated in. Once again, context is key to translation, interpretation and understanding.
“The feast of Sukkot was near” Much time has passed since the end of chapter 6. The events of chapter seven begin some months later. The feast of Shavuot (Pentecost) has been skipped by the author and we now find ourselves nearing the end of the year at the time of the later harvest heading toward fall and winter. The author of the Gospel of John does not intend his Gospel to relay a blow by blow historical and chronologically detailed account like that of Luke. The theme of this Gospel regards the present deity of the Messiah and His redemptive purpose as the Lamb of God come to give Himself as a vicarious sacrifice for all who would receive Him. Thus, the next point in the revelation of the theme begins prior to Sukkot, that festival which prophecies the future dwelling of God with His redeemed creation.
A sound understanding of the festival of Sukkot (Lev. 23:33-43; Num. 29:12-39; Deut. 16:13-16) and its customs is key to a correct interpretation of John 7:37-39 and 8:12. The festival of Sukkot is the backdrop for John chapters 7 and 8.
Sukkot begins 5 days after Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) on the 15th of Tishri (Shabbat or seventh month of the Biblical lunar calendar). It is highly likely given Yeshua’s strict observance of the Torah, that He had gone up to Jerusalem for Yom Kippur and had returned to the Galilee for the 5 day interim period between Yom Kippur and Sukkot. He had every intention of going up for Sukkot, in His own timing (according to God’s timing).
Sukkot is the festival of the later harvest and is full of completions: seven days, seventy sacrificial bulls etc. It has a long standing connection to the nations, from the time of the giving of the Torah in the presence of seventy elders, to the time of the prophet Zechariyah, and in the Talmud of rabbinical Judaism, and beyond.
“16 Then it will come about that any who are left of all the nations that went against Jerusalem will go up from year to year to worship the King, the Lord of hosts, and to celebrate the Feast of Booths.17 And it will be that whichever of the families of the earth does not go up to Jerusalem to worship the King, the
Concerning the seventy bulls required by Numbers 29:12-34, which were to be sacrificed over the seven days of the festival of Sukkot, the Talmud Bavliy says:
“Rabbi El’azar said, ‘To what do these seventy bulls correspond? To the seventy nations…” (Sukkah 55b)
Based on the many correlations between the number seventy and the nations in the Torah, rabbinic tradition teaches that seventy is a number for the nations and that the seventy bulls sacrificed during Sukkot are meant as an atonement for the nations.
Jewish Tradition and Practice During First Century CE Sukkot Celebrations at the Temple in Jerusalem:
Apart from the continued Torah instructed practice of dwelling, sleeping, eating and drinking, in temporary shelters, first century Jews practiced various other rites during Sukkot in Jerusalem each year.
The waving of the four species or Lulav (still practiced today) made up of branches of palm tree, myrtle, and willow, bound up together in a bundle. These were carried in the right hand, with an etrog (citron native to Israel) in the left. The lulav is waved three times first toward the east, then south, east, north, toward the heavens and then toward the lower regions and brought back to rest over the heart of the worshipper. This signifies that God is Creator and sustains of all things.
In the first century the priests walked around the altar once, with the lulav in their hands, saying the words "Hoshana Save now, I plead to You, O Lord, O Lord I plead to You, send now prosperity" (Psalm 118:25): and on the seventh day, they went around the altar seven times (Mishnah. ib. c. 4. sect. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Maimon. Hilch. Lulab, c. 7. sect. 5, 6, 9, 23).
There were great Menorah-like four branched candles stands in the Temple precinct. At sundown on the first day of the feast, they went down to the court of the women where golden candlesticks had been erected, and at the head of them four golden basins, and four ladders to every candlestick, and four young priests had four pitchers of oil, that held a hundred and twenty logs (an ancient measure of oil), which they put into each basin. Wicks were made from the old breeches and girdles of the priests, and it was these oil soaked wicks that the priests would light. There was not a court in Jerusalem which was not lit up with that light, and religious men, and men of good works, danced before them, with lighted torches in their hands, singing songs and hymns of praise, which continued for the following six nights (Mishnah. Succah, c. 5. sect 2, 3, 4; Maimon. ib. c. 8. sect. 12.).
On every day of the festival water was drawn from the pool of Siloach (sent), and was poured along with wine upon the altar as a libation offering, which was celebrated with great rejoicing (simchateinu). During the illumination in the court of the women, many instruments were employed such as harps, psalteries, cymbals, and two priests with trumpets, who sounded them when they were given the signal, and on every day, as they brought water from the pool of Siloach to the altar, they sounded with trumpets, and shouted; the great "Hallel" (Psalms 136), was sung all the eight days (Mishnah. ib. c. 4. sect. 8, 9. & c. 5. 1, 4, 5. & Eracin, c. 2. sect. 3). The whole festival was one of great rejoicing, according to Leviticus 23:40.
3 Therefore His brothers (achiym[H]) said to Him (Yeshua), “Leave here and go into the region of Judea (Ioudaia[G], b’Yehudah[H]), so that Your disciples (talmidim[H]) also may see Your works, deeds (ergon[G], ha-ma’asiym[H]) which You are doing, making (oseh[H]).
It seems clear that Yeshua had many disciples outside His intimate retinue and that many of them were not always with Him but were Judean Jews who often spent time in Judea among the religious community there. The suggestion of Yeshua’s biological brothers is a practical one, and in and of itself is not wrong.
4 For no one does anything, word (davar[H]) in secret (kruptos[G], seiter[H]) when he himself seeks to be known (l’hivodeia[H]) publicly, become famous. If You’re going to do these things, show Yourself to the world (kosmos[G], ha-olam[H]).”
“no one does anything in secret when, he himself seeks to be known publicly.” Initially the suggestion of Yeshua’s brothers may have been well meaning, a desire to see Yeshua succeed in His role as a great teacher of Israel. However, their disbelief alluded to in the following verse illuminates their true motivation. Like so many others of their generation and like so many human beings throughout the generations, the thought of failing to promote one’s gifts in order to form a mass following seemed ludicrous to them.
We are guilty of the same idolatrous sin today: Mega Churches, Media promotion of certain faith leaders, buildings, empires, mass followings, and all contrary to the ministry of Messiah Yeshua. Our motivation has been self-promoting idolatry, whereas Yeshua’s motivation was to walk according to the redemptive purposes of God and in full obedience to the Father regardless of what that meant for His own reputation and well-being.
“Secret, hidden” The use of the Greek kruptos, meaning “secret, hidden, concealed” is poignant, given that Yeshua had explained earlier (some months past, but directly precedent to this chapter) that He is the “true bread from the heavens”( John 6:48-51), the manna that had been hidden, kept secret, concealed from the eyes of the Jewish people up to this point in history. Yeshua is the hidden manna in that He can be seen only by those who receive Him. He has no need of popularity because His intent is not to please the public but to honour God His Father. Modern believers would do well to emulate Him.
“The one who has an ear, let that one hear what the Spirit says to the body of believers. To that one who overcomes, to that person I will give some of the hidden, secret, concealed (krupto) manna (bread from the heavens), and I will give that person a white stone, and a new name written on the stone which no one knows but the one who receives it.’” -Yeshua’s Revelation to Yochanan 2:17
5 For not even His brothers (achiym[H]) were believing in Him, thought Him true, were persuaded of Him, had faith in Him, trusted Him (pisteuo[G], he’emiynu[H]).
Yeshua’s brothers are named in the Gospels of Matthew and Mark as: Yaakov, Yosef, Yehudah, and Shimon. These were sons of Miriyam (Mary) and Yosef (Joseph), Yeshua’s biological mother and earthly but not biological father (Matt.13:55-56; Mark. 6:3).
“A stranger I have become to my brothers and a foreigner to the children of My mother…” -Tehilim (Psalms) 69:8 Author’s translation
It’s important to note that the disbelief of Yeshua’s brothers did not persist after His death and resurrection. We know for certain that Yaakov became not only a believer in Yeshua but also a leader of the early Messianic Jewish sect (The Way) [Acts. 2:17, 15:13, 21:18, Galatians. 1:19, 2:9, 12]. He is also the most likely author of the book of Yaakov (James) included in the Ha-Brit Ha-Chadashah (NT). Another brother Yehudah is thought to be the author of the NT book of Yehudah (Jude).
6 So Yeshua[H] said to them, “The true measure, opportune time for Me (ho kairos[G]) is not yet here, but your true measure, opportune time (ho kairos[G]) is all the time, any time, always now (pantote[G]).
In other words, pursuing popularity, self-promotion and idolatry are always the go to for those who are spiritually blind. In and of itself fame is not wrong, the Scriptures tell us that because HaShem was “with Joshua, and his fame spread throughout the land” (Joshua 6:27), but when the pursuit of fame seeks to promote self rather than the Gospel, or worse, in place of the Gospel, it becomes idolatry.
7 The world (kosmos[G], ha-olam[H]) can’t hate you, but it hates Me because I testify (meiiyd[H]) of it, that its deeds are perpetual, intense, multiples of evil (raiym[H]).
The sin affected people of this world love those who tell them what they want to hear, but those who challenge sin and teach the need for sacrifice and repentance are hated by this world. Why? Because our evil actions are perpetual, so much so that evil has become the norm. Therefore, when our long held beliefs are challenged we do what all sin affected people do, we become defensive and attack the one who has exposed the lie of our existence.
8 Go up to the feast (Chag[H]) yourselves; I do not go up to this feast (Chag[H]) because the true measure, opportune time for Me (ho kairos[G]) has not yet (oupo[G]) fully come (pleroo[G]).” 9 Having said these things to them, He stayed in the Galilee (ba’Galiyl[H], b’Galeela[A]).
Notice that Yeshua’s brothers were religiously observant Jews who had clearly planned to make aliyah (going up) for the Regaliym Festival of Sukkot (Shelters).
Both the context and the grammar tell us that Yeshua was not saying that He wouldn’t go at all, rather He was saying that He would come at the appropriate time. The present tense of the Greek is better translated as “I’m not presently going up”.
10 But when His brothers (achiym[H]) had gone up to the festival (Chag[H]), then He Himself also made aliyah[H] (went up), not openly (b’gelya[A]), but in secret, hidden, concealed (kruptos[G]). 11 So the Judeans, religious Jews (Ioudaios[G], Ha-Yehudiym[H]) were seeking Him at the feast (Chag[H]) and were saying, “Where is He?”
Yeshua had always intended to attend. It is likely that He followed soon after His brothers and arrived in time for the beginning of the feast so as to make His chagigah or sacrifice according to first century practice. The journey from the Galilee to Jerusalem was approximately 3 days by foot, with stops to rest each evening). However, the Mishnah allows for the sacrifice to be made at another point during the festival (Mishnah. Chagiga, c. 1. sect. 6. Maimon. Hilch. Chagiga, c. 2. sect. 4, 5, 6, 7). Therefore, regardless of when He went up, He non the less kept the Torah requirement, as was His custom.
The anger of the Religious leaders was such that they were actively searching for Yeshua at the festival. However, we note that they at very least considered Yeshua an observant Jew, or else why were they looking for Him at the feast?
12 There was much murmuring, grumbling, secret displeasure (goggusmos[G]) among the crowds concerning Him (Yeshua[H]); some were saying, “He is a good man”; others were saying, “No, on the contrary, He causes people to go astray (planao[G]).” 13 Yet no one was speaking openly of Him for fear of the Judeans, religious Jews (Ioudaios[G], Ha-Yehudiym[H]).
The people of Israel were undecided as to whether Yeshua was a good, even truly prophetic figure or a heretic. Some spoke quietly against Him, others spoke quietly in His favour, but such was the power of the religious leaders that none spoke publicly concerning Him for fear of religious persecution or being “Put out of the synagogue”.
14 But when it was now the middle (alt. chol ha-moediym[H] intermediary days) of the feast (Chag[H]) Yeshua[H] (Jesus) went up into the Temple (hieron[G], ha-Mikdash[H]), and began to teach.
Some date this Sukkot festival to the year 29 CE, the definitive middle of the festival being at the convergence of yom shiyshiy and the beginning of the only weekly Shabbat of the festival. If this dating is correct the ministry years of Yeshua spanned 27-30 CE.
“…into the Mikdash (temple)” means inside the Temple area itself, and does not refer to the outer court of the Gentiles which is not considered part of the Temple proper. In other words, at the time of these events Yeshua’s teaching was made available only to Jews.
15 the Judeans, religious Jews (Ioudaios[G], Ha-Yehudiym[H]) marvelled, were astonished, admired His teaching (thaumazo[G]) saying, “How has this man become knowledgeable, learned in sacred things, having never been educated?”
“How has this man become knowledgeable, learned in sacred things, having never been educated?” In other words, “How is this hick from the Kinneret (Galilee) able to clearly articulate Jewish halakhic teaching without ever having attended a yeshivah or studied under a famous rabbi or scholar?”
Interestingly the Talmud acknowledges that Yeshua was taught by the great Rabbi Yehoshua Ben Peracyah, the chief teacher of his day (Sanhedrin 107b, Sotah 47a). However, that is utter nonsense, given that the rabbi in question lived a hundred years earlier. Still, the point is that Jewish tradition does not record Yeshua as being ignorant of religious training and knowledge.
16 So Yeshua[H] answered them and said, “My teaching is not Mine, but His who sent Me (sholkhiy[H]). 17 If anyone is willing to do His will, that one will know of the teaching, whether it is of the God (ho Theos[G], Elohiym[H]) or whether I speak (adabeir[H]) from Myself.
In reality Yeshua’s learning, knowledge, and application were in this world but not of it. His wisdom and practice are from above, the impartation of the Father God. His teaching, perpetual, sacred and transcendent.
“…whether it is of the God or whether I speak from Myself.” The beautiful irony here is that in either case the teaching is of God.
18 He who speaks from himself seeks, craves, demands (zeteo[G]) his own judgement, opinion, view, glory (doxa[G], k’vod[H]); but He who is seeking the judgement, opinion, view, glory (doxa[G], k’vod[H]) of the One who sent Him, He is true, faithful, trustworthy (alethes[G], ne’eman[H]), and there is no injustice, unrighteousness (adikia[G]) in Him.
Note the intrinsic connection between judgement (discernment, view) and glory (honour). This link between judgement and glory bears fruit in verse 24 where Yeshua challenges the false judgement/glory of His hearers.
19 “Didn’t Moshe[H] (drawn out) give (natan[H]) you the Instruction (Ha-Torah[H]), and yet none among you does, acts out (oseh[H]) the Instruction (Ha-Torah[H])? Why do you seek to kill Me?”
In fact Moses gave Israel the Instruction of God, the author and goal of that Instruction being Yeshua Himself. The religious Jewish community of the first century were proud of their connection to the Torah and Moses, and yet they did not do what the Torah required. This is true of so many people of faith today. We are aware of what we should do but non the less act in a contrary fashion. Yeshua is not exposing their inaction but their hypocrisy.
20 The crowd answered, “You have an evil spirit, demon, divinity, god (daimonion[G], sheid[H])! Who seeks to kill You?”
In modern terms, “You’re a demonized psycho, a sicko, crazy person…”
21 Yeshua[H] answered them, “I did (poieo[G]) one (echad[H]) deed, work (ergon[G]) and you all admire, marvel (thaumazo[G]).
The work Yeshua speaks of is recorded in John 5:5-16, and concerns the making whole of the lame man at the pool of Beit Chasda on the Shabbat of Purim now some months prior. John 5:18 quite literally says that the religious Jewish leaders “sought to kill” Yeshua because of this miraculous sign performed on the Shabbat. Thus, what follows concerns actions that are permissible by first century Jewish halakhah on the Shabbat, even when they contradict the Shabbat commandment.
22 For this reason Moshe[H] (drawn out) has given (natan[H]) you circumcision (ha-miylah[H]) [not because it’s from Moses, but from the fathers (ha-Avot[H], Avraham, Yitzchak, Yaakov)], and on the Sabbath (Ha-Shabbat[H]) you circumcise (tamulu[H]) a man.
“Moses has given you circumcision” Leviticus 12:3
“…not because it’s from Moses, but from the fathers” God originally gave the commandment of circumcision to Avraham in Genesis 17:1-27, which he carried out on Yitzchak in Genesis 21:4, and it was perpetuated by Yitzchak and Yaakov respectively. This occurred centuries prior to the command given through Moses, which was a reiteration of the original command.
"we do not circumcise because Abraham our father, on whom be peace, circumcised himself and his household, but because the holy blessed God commanded us by Moses, that we should be circumcised, as Abraham our father was circumcised.'' -Maimon. in Mishnah. Cholin, c. 7. sect. 6.
23 If a male receives circumcision (timol[H]) on the Sabbath (Ha-Shabbat[H]) so that the Instruction (Torah[H]) of Moshe[H] will not be broken, are you angry with Me because I made an entire human being (anthropos[G]) sound, whole, fully restored (hugies[G]) on the Sabbath (Ha-Shabbat[H])?
The Torah commands that a Jewish male be circumcised on the eight day (Gen. 17:12; Lev. 12:3), however, it also prohibits work on the Shabbat (Exodus 20:9-10, 23:12, 31:14-15, 34:21; Lev. 23:3; Deut. 5:12-14 etc.) Therefore, if the eighth day of a new born male’s life falls on a Shabbat there is a practical conflict. It is clear from the text that the halakhah of the first century Judean Jews under these circumstances was to practice circumcision on the Shabbat. The Talmud tractate Shabbat 128b-137b records this halakhic practice for posterity. Therefore, that which Yeshua referred to was a well-known and accepted halakhic practice. Yeshua was not denying its validity, rather He was using it as an example so as to expose the hypocrisy of His accusers.
Yeshua is using a form of reasoning which in Judaism is called kal ve’chomer or a light and heavy argument. He is essentially saying, “You permit the breaking of the Shabbat in order to circumcise, how much more important is it to make a person whole on the Shabbat?”
Jewish tradition agrees with Yeshua’s reasoning. The Talmud Bavliy sites the principle that saving a life suspends the Shabbat:
“Rabbi El’azar answered, ‘If circumcision. Which involves only one of the 248 human body parts, suspends Shabbat, how much more must [healing] the whole body suspend Shabbat.” -Talmud Bavliy Yoma 85b
"…the preservation of the soul life, suspends the Shabbat…” -Talmud. Bavliy. Shabbat, fol. 132. 1.
Put simply, a suffering person cannot rest, therefore, in order for the suffering person to keep the Shabbat that person must first be made whole. After all, Shabbat means “Seventh, blessing, stop, rest, pause, completion, wholeness, sound construction and transcendent peace.”
24 Do not separate, select, prefer, determine, judge (krino[G], tish’petu[H]) according to sight, seeing, appearance (opsis[G], lemareih[H]), but, instead by righteous, innocent, faultless observation (dikaios[G], tzedek[H]) separate, distinguish, make just, right judgment, alt. conclude justly (krisis[G], mishpat[H]).”
This verse challenges the false sight of the religious Jewish leaders and those among the crowd who oppose Yeshua’s teaching. He brings to summation the idea seeded in verse 18 concerning the intrinsic connection between judgement and glory, as a means of challenging His hearers to choose a different way of looking at, perceiving, judging, accessing things. If they were to follow His advice they would receive Him and His teaching and find redemption.
Every modern believer is promptly challenged to do away with the foolish, decontextualized popular pseudo Christian phrase, “Don’t judge”. While it is true that Scripture indicates elsewhere that we are not in any position to condemn others or pass judgement on them, it is certainly not true that we should not judge. A lack of judgement results in sin. Rather, we are instructed to judge well, truly, rightly, based on Godly sight born of the righteousness purchased for us in Messiah. Therefore, “Stop judging by mere appearances and make a truly just judgement.”
Copyright 2020 Yaakov Brown
Sefer Yochanan (Gospel According to John) Chapter 5 Pt.2 The Hour is Coming and Now is (John 5:25-47)
With regard to a Hebrew (religious, cultural) interpretation of the Scriptures, those things that appear contradictory are in fact unbound eternal concepts being understood within the boundaries of time and space.
It’s important to remember that the following verses are pursuant to the beginning of Yeshua’s conversation with the Judean religious Jews of Jerusalem following the physical healing and spiritual wholeness of that certain man at the pool of Beit Chasda (House of practical love).
Therefore, it’s foolish to apply these words generally without first having understood that Yeshua is speaking them to those religious Jews from Jerusalem who were opposing Him based on their understanding of the Torah and extra Biblical religious law. Many of those opposing Him here later became His followers (John 11:45; 12:41; Acts 2). Once again, the anti-Semitic Sunday school refrain “I don’t wanna be a Pharisee…” comes under scrutiny when faced with the reality that Yeshua’s theology was most like that of the Pharisees and that He had come to save the lost sheep of the House of Israel (including the Pharisees). His love for His enemies, especially those among His own people is one of the character attributes that distinguishes Him as God with us.
25 “Amen[H] [G]Amen[H] [G] (B’emet[H], B’emet[H]), In truth, In truth, It’s certain, it’s certain, I say (Aniy omeir[H]) to you all (lachem[H] PL), an hour, a season, a particular time (hora[G], sha’ah[H]) is coming and now (nun[G], veatah hiy[H]) is, when the dead (nekros[G], ha-meitiym[H]) will hear, comprehend, receive, understand (akouo[G], yishmeu[H]) the voice, sound (ho-phone[G], et-kol[H]) of the Son of God (ho huios ho Theos[G], Ben Ha-Elohiym[H]), and those who hear, comprehend, receive, understand (akouo[G], ha-shomeiym[H]) they will live (zao[G], chayh yichyu[H]). 26 For just as the Father (ho Pater[G], la-Av[H]) has life, living (yesh chayiym[H], chaye[A]) in His substance (baqnumeh[A]), even so He gave (didomi[G], natan[H]) to the Son (ho huios[G], la-Ben[H]) also to have life, living (zoe[G], chayiym[H]) in His substance (baqnumeh[A]);
“Amen, Amen, I say to you all, an hour, a season, a particular time is coming and now is, when the dead will hear the voice of the Son of God, and those who hear they will live. 26 For just as the Father has life in His substance, even so He gave to the Son also to have life in His substance;
Put concisely the theme of these verses is that of “realized eschatology”, the idea that God’s goals have already been accomplished in Yeshua outside of the limitations of time and space. However, this is an over simplification that needs to be examined more thoroughly. Suffice to say the conditions of the last days are already being realized at the time of Yeshua’s earthly ministry (first century CE).
“a particular time is coming and now is”
Just as it was true in the moment Yeshua spoke it, so it remains true today. The coming of the Gospel and the Kingdom of God is now and yet to come. Where the Spirit of the Father and the Son (Ruach Ha-Kodesh) has filled the believer and is at work in the life of that person, the Gospel and the Kingdom are manifest and present, having been seeded into time and space. The Gospel and the Kingdom therefore are a present deposit of eternity found within temporal creation, that await the bursting forth and renewal of creation when time is brought to a new beginning. Like a needle injecting the air outside a bubble into the bubble until the bubble explodes and the air inside becomes one with the air outside.
Yeshua is saying something like, “Even as you hear Me speaking the coming redemption you have hoped for is standing before you”.
“when the dead will hear the voice of the Son of God”
The time when the “dead” will hear the voice of the Son is said to be both “coming” and “now”. Therefore, Yeshua is speaking of the present spiritually dead, and all those spiritually dead prior to His death and resurrection (who will hear the redemptive plan of God from the transcendent resurrected Messiah), and those who will be spiritually dead within time and space following His ascension to the Father after His resurrection. This cannot refer to those dead and departed in sheol at the time of Yeshua’s earthly ministry because they will rise either to life or to judgement at the final resurrection, depending on their acceptance or refusal of the Messiah (v.28).[The temporal resurrection which occurred at the time of Yeshua’s death and resurrection is an exception which acts as a sign of God pointing to the yet future and final resurrection and judgement (Matt. 27:51-53)].
We note that those who hear the Son’s voice in this verse will “live”. This is a reference to eternal life. This defines what hearing means, it is the Hebrew concept of “shema” hear, receive, and understand continually.
The previous verses (23-24) explain what is required in order to “hear” the voice/word/sound of the Son of God.
Put simply, the “dead” being referred to in this verse are those who are spiritually dead, including His hearers the religious Judean Jews of Jerusalem. Yeshua further adds to this an allusion to the coming and final resurrection of the physically dead (v.28). Thus He makes a clear distinction between the two.
For just as the Father has life in His substance, even so He gave to the Son also to have life in His substance;
This is a statement of divinity. Yeshua has been given the life of the Father and the power to create life according to the Father. Thus, the Son’s Word transforms the sin affected creation into a new and renewed creation through the eternal blood of God shed on the cross as a vicarious sacrifice. The Godhead is not divided or separate as the sadly lacking theological term “trinity” infers, but is echad (a complex unity), the persons of the Godhead being distinct and One.
Eternal life is given of God to and through the Son. Therefore, our Salvation is manifest in the fullness of the Godhead.
“And this is the testimony, that God gave us eternal life, and this life is in his Son.” -1 John 5:11 (ESV)
27 and He gave Him (The Son) authority (exousia[H]) to make, enact (poieo[H], ) judgment, sentencing (krisis[H]), because He is Son of Man (huios Anthropos[H], Ben Adam).
and He gave Him (The Son) authority to make, enact judgment, sentencing, because He is Son of Man.
As stated in my commentary on John 5:1-24:
With regard to judgement God is no hypocrite, the Father Who is outside all things and in Whom all things exist does not pretend to be a human being or to have the frailty of a human being. However, the Son, the King Messiah (Dan. 7:13: Zohar in Gen. fol. 85. 4. Bemidbar Rabba, sect. 13. fol. 209. 4. Jarchi & Saadiah Gaon in Dan. vii. 13. & R. Jeshuah in Aben Ezra in ib.), God with us, experiences all things as we have and is therefore fully qualified in His own frailty to judge humanity (Phil. 2:5-7; Heb.4:15). Not that God the Father is unqualified, but that He perfects His qualification in the Son Who was crucified before the creation of the world in anticipation of humanity’s decision to sin. Therefore, God remains Judge in the sense that He gives judgement over to the Son in order that the Father might outwork His perfect justice.
“For we do not have a high priest who cannot sympathize with our weaknesses, but One who has been tempted in all things as we are, yet without sin.” -Hebrews 4:15 (NASB)
28 Do not marvel, wonder, be amazed (thaumazo[G], titmehu[H]) at this; for behold, pay attention, beware (kiy hineih[H]), an hour, a season, a particular time (hora[G], sha’ah[H]), is coming in which all who are in the tombs, graves (mnemeion[G], kever[H]) will hear, comprehend, receive, understand (akouo[G], yishmeu[H]) His voice, sound (phone[G], kolu[H]), 29 and will depart from (the tombs), come forth, burst, flow out, be spread abroad, rise (ekporeuomai[G]); those the good (ho agathos[G], ha-tov[H]) having done, made, constructed (poieo[G], oseiy[H]) to resurrection, standing upright, rising (anastasis[G], lakum[H]) of life, living (zoe[G], lachayiym[H]), those the evil (ho phaulos[G], ha-ra[H]) having performed, accomplished, exacted, required (prasso[G]) to resurrection, standing upright, rising (anastasis[G], lakum[H]) of judgment, sentencing, condemnation (krisis[G], ladiyn[H]).
Do not marvel, wonder, be amazed at this; for behold, pay attention, beware, an hour, a season, a particular time, is coming in which all who are in the tombs, graves will hear His voice, sound, 29 and will depart from, come forth, burst, flow out, be spread abroad, rise; those, the good, having done, made, constructed to resurrection, standing upright, rising of life, those the evil having performed, accomplished, exacted, required to resurrection, standing upright, rising of judgment, sentencing, condemnation.
Notice that all rise together, the “Good” to a reward of life and the “Evil” to a judgement of condemnation. One resurrection, and one judgement distinguished by two outcomes over a period of time (season, hour) called “Ha Din” (The Judgement). The dead in Messiah will rise first in the order of resurrection (1 Thess. 4:16) but this does not negate the continuation of that singular resurrection event over a period of time. Like so many Hebraic Biblical concepts, the resurrection and judgement are seen here in a future prophetic view that employs a yet to be present continuous tense. This is consistent with the Revelation, which teaches a single multifaceted judgement (Rev. 20:4-6; 11-15). We note that based on the Greek protos the “First resurrection” of the book of Revelation is first in order (rank) and that the Hebrew concept of the number 1000 is figurative, referring to perpetuity and is both a literal term and an everlasting beginning. The text of Revelation 20:5 should be read as “But the remaining dead did not live again until the thousand years were filled up. This is the first in order of resurrection”.
“And many of those who sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt.” -Daniel 12:2 (ESV)
With regard to a Hebrew (religious, cultural) interpretation of the Scriptures, those things that appear contradictory are in fact unbound eternal concepts being understood within the boundaries of time and space.
“those, the good, having done, made, constructed to resurrection, standing upright, rising of life, those the evil having performed, accomplished, exacted, required to resurrection, standing upright, rising of judgment, sentencing, condemnation.”
Note carefully that the Greek text does not place emphasis on the deeds of the person but on the nature that produces the person’s actions. The nature of those who rise is called “ho agathos” (those the good Heb. Ha-tov) and “ho phaulos” (those the evil Heb. Ha-ra): in both cases the nature of the person precedes their deeds. In other words, it is the person’s relationship status with God that determines their deeds and not the other way around. Many mistake this verse to infer that it is the actions of a person that determine their eternal fate, this is not the case. In the Greek the meaning is clear, it is the nature of the person (be it redeemed or unredeemed) that determines their eternal destiny and the actions that are born of the person’s nature testify to it (the nature), be it redeemed in Messiah or unredeemed through a refusal of Messiah.
The idea of a voice that raises the dead is common to the Zohar but is misunderstood to be the voice of the forerunner rather than the Messiah:
"there are three things which do not come into the world but "by voices"; there is the voice of a living creature, as it is written, (Gen 3:16), "in sorrow thou shalt bring forth children", and as it is written, (Gen 30:22), "and God hearkened to her"; and there is the voice of rains, as it is written, (1Kings 18:41), "for there is a voice of abundance of rain", and it is written, (Psalm 29:3), "the voice of the Lord is upon the waters"; and קול תהיית המתים, "there is the voice of the resurrection of the dead", as it is written, (Isaiah 40:3), "the voice of him that cries in the wilderness";'' - Zohar in Gen. fol. 70. 4.
30 “I can do, make, construct (poieo[G], la’asot[H]) nothing of Myself (emautou[G]) [Heb. Alt. lo uchal la’asot davar minafshiy], word, essence do I construct, make from My soul alone]. As I hear, understand, receive (akouo[G], shema[H]), I judge, decide, distinguish (krino[G], umishpatiy[H]); and My judgment, decision, sentence (krisis[G) is just, righteous (dikaios[G]], tzedek[H]), because I do not seek My own will (retzoniy[H]), but the will of the Father (ha-Av[H]) who sent (pempo[G], shelachaniy[H]) Me.
“I can do, make, construct nothing of Myself, word, essence do I construct, make from My soul alone. As I hear, understand, receive, I judge, decide, distinguish; and My judgment, decision, sentence is just, righteous, because I do not seek My own will, but the will of the Father who sent Me.
Although the Father has given authority for judgement to the Son, the Son cannot judge except by the will of the Father. Therefore, the Father and the Son are echad (a complex unity), unique and inseparable. This answers the question, “Why does the Tanakh (OT) say that God judges but the Brit HaChadashah (NT) says that all authority to judge is given to Yeshua?”
"there were three courts of judicature; one that sat at the gate of the mountain of the house; and one that sat at the gate of the court; and another that sat in the paved chamber: they go (first) to that which is at the gate of the mountain of the house, and say, so have I expounded, and so have the companions expounded; so have I taught, and so have the companions (or colleagues) taught: אם שמעו, ‘if they hear’” - Mishna. Sanhedrin, c. 10. sect. 2.
Maimonides explains it, “if they know the law, and hear, or understand the sense of the law; in such a case they declare what they know; if not, they go to them that are at the gate of the court, and say (as before).—And, "if they hear", they tell them; but if not, they go to the great sanhedrim in the paved chamber, from whence goes forth the law to all Israel.'' - Maimon. in ib.
The point being that Yeshua is challenging Israel’s judges at the place of highest authority and is identifying Himself fully submitted to God’s will, as Israel’s Judge.
31 “If I testify, give evidence, bear witness (martureo[G], mei’iyd[H]) about Myself, My testimony (marturia[G]) is not true, unconcealed, admissible, faithful, trustworthy (alethes[G], ne’emanah[H])32 There is another who testifies, bears witness, gives evidence (martureo[G]) of Me, and I know (eido[G], yadatiy[H]) that the testimony (marturia[G]), eiduto[H]) which He gives about Me is true, unconcealed, admissible (alethes[G]).
“If I testify, give evidence, bear witness about Myself, My testimony is not true, unconcealed, admissible, faithful, trustworthy 32 There is another who testifies, bears witness, gives evidence of Me, and I know that the testimony which He gives about Me is true unconcealed, admissible, faithful, trustworthy.
“If I give evidence, My testimony is not admissible”
“My testimony is not true” This does not mean “untrue” as being contrary to the “truth” nor in relationship to secular legal proceedings but rather “true” in this case being synonymous with “admissible” in respect to Torah law. If Yeshua were to give testimony of Himself it would be quite literally true. Therefore, the meaning here denotes eligibility according to Torah law (of which He is the Author). The same Law that Yeshua’s audience demanded adherence to (albeit amended by the so called “Oral Law” and the commentary of their scribes and teachers etc.).
"for no man may give witness of himself" - Maimon. Issure Bia, c. 18. sect. 19.
“but no man is to be believed for himself: says R. Zechariah ben Hakatzah, by this habitation (swearing by the temple) her hand was not removed from my hand, from the time the Gentiles entered Jerusalem, till they went out: they replied to him, ‘no man bears witness of himself’.” - Misn. Cetubot, c. 2. sect. 9. T. Bab. Cetubot, fol. 27. 2. Juchasin, fol. 56. 1.
Yeshua has just finished explaining that the Father has given Him authority to judge and that in fulfilling this role He will present the case for His Messiahship according to the Torah requirements.
In instances of judicial Torah law any capital case (which might result in the death of the accused), must be tried in the presence, or upon the testimony of two or three witnesses (Deut. 17:6; 19:15). Yeshua is being accused of a capital crime by these particular Judean religious Jews of Jerusalem. Therefore, sufficient witnesses are called upon.
Yeshua goes on to produce 5 witnesses that testify of His good character, identity and innocence:
“There is another Who gives evidence of Me, and I know that the testimony which He gives about Me is admissible, faithful, trustworthy.”
This “other” who testifies is not a reference to John the Immerser (Baptist), who is mentioned in the following verse because although John the Immerser has testified to the truth of Who Yeshua is, the testimony that Yeshua is speaking of as being valid and admissible is “not from man” (v.34). Therefore, the “other” (v.32) Who testifies of Yeshua is in fact God the Father.
33 You have sent (apostello[G], shelachtem[H]) to Yochanan[H] (YHVH is gracious, John the Baptist), and he has testified (martureo[G], hei’iyd[H]) to the truth (alethes[G], emet[H]). 34 But the testimony (marturia[G], eidot[H]) which I receive is not from man, human beings (mei’adam[H]), but I say these things so that you may be saved, preserved, rescued (sozo[G]).
You have sent to Yochanan and he has testified to the truth 34 But the testimony which I receive is not from human beings, but I say these things so that you may be saved.
It is important to remember that Yeshua is still speaking to the Judean religious Jews of Jerusalem and any other bystanders. He is saying these things that they (Judean religious Jews) “may be saved”. That is, He is pointing to the testimony of John the Immerser (Baptist) for their sake because they cannot comprehend the testimony of the Father at this point in time. This may infer that those listening were among the Perushiym (Pharisees) who had gone out to hear John the Immerser speak (John 1:19).
35 He was the lamp, light, flame (luchnos[G], ha-nir[H]) that was burning, igniting, consuming (kaio[G]) and was shining, shedding light (phaino[G]) and you were willing to rejoice (agalliao[G]) for a while, time, season (hora[G]) in his light (phos[G], leoro[H]).
He was the lamp that was igniting and was shedding light and you were willing to rejoice for a time in his light.
We note that this is an acknowledgement of the fact that some of the Judean religious Jews of Jerusalem had indeed rejoiced in the light of John the Immerser’s teaching, at least for a time.
To call a Jewish religious leader, sage, rabbi a “Light” or “Lamp” is familiar to the Jewish student of rabbinic and esoteric Jewish literature.
On a number of occasions the book of Zohar calls Rabbi. Simeon ben Yochai, בוצינא קדישא, "the holy light":
"R. Simeon, כבוצינא דשרגא דאדליק, is as "the lamp of light which burns above", and "burns" below; and by the light which burns below all the children of the world are enlightened: woe to the world, when the light below ascends to the light above.''- Zohar in Exod. fol. 79. 1.
Rabbi Abhu is called בוצינא דנהורא, "the lamp of light" - T. Bavli. Cetubot, fol. 17. 1.
Of Shuah, Judah's father-in-law, that he was בוצינא דאתרא, "the light of the place" - Bereshit Rabba, sect. 85. fol. 74. 4. & Mattanot Cehunah in ib.
36 But the testimony (marturia[G], eidot[H]) which I have is greater (megas[G], gedolah[H]) than Yochanan[H] (YHVH is gracious, John the Baptist); for the works, actions, tasks (ergon[G], ha-ma’asiym[H]) which the Father (ho-Pater[G], ha-Av[H]) has given Me (natan liy[H]) to accomplish—the very works that I do, enact (poieo[G], oseh[H])—testify, bear witness, give evidence (martureo[G], meiydiym[H]) about Me, that the Father (ho-Pater[G], ha-Av[H]) has sent (apostello[G], shelachaniy[H]) Me.
But the testimony which I have is greater than Yochanan; for the works which the Father has given Me to accomplish—the very works that I do—give evidence about Me, that the Father has sent Me.
This profession is similar in theme to that concerning Abraham (John 8:48-58) and the Queen of the South (Luke 11:31; Matt. 12:42)
The works of the Father manifest in the Son are greater than all the testimony and works of fallen human beings. The works of God are both transcendent and physically present simultaneously. They are signs for the redemption of the people and at the same time evidence of the legitimacy of the Messiah. Proof that He is sent of the Father.
37 And the Father (Pater[G], ha-Av[H]) Who sent Me (shelachaniy[H]), He has testified (martureo[G], meiydiym[H]) of Me. You all have neither heard (akouo[G], shema’tem[H]) His voice, sound (phone[G], kolu[H]) at any time, ever (popote[G]) nor seen, looked upon, experienced, perceived, discerned, of (horao[G], reiytem[H]) His form, shape, appearance (eidos[G]). 38 You do not have His word, essence (logos[G], devaru[H], miltha[A]) abiding, remaining, staying in you (meno[G]), for you do not believe, have faith in, trust in (pisteuo[G], ma’amiyniym[H]) Him Whom He sent (apostello[G], lishlucho[H]).
And the Father Who sent Me, He has testified of Me. You all have neither heard His voice, sound at any time, ever nor have you seen, looked upon, experienced, perceived, discerned, of His form, shape, appearance 38 You do not have His word, essence abiding, remaining, staying in you, for you do not believe, have faith in, trust in Him Whom He sent.
The testimony of God the Father concerning the Son spans the entirety of the Tanakh (OT) from Genesis 3:15 through to Malachi 3:1.
“Now therefore, O kings, show discernment;
Take warning, O [j]judges of the earth.
11 [k]Worship the Lord with [l]reverence
And rejoice with trembling.
12 [m]Do homage to the Son, that He not become angry, and you perish in the way,
For His wrath may [n]soon be kindled.
How blessed are all who take refuge in Him!” -Psalm 2:10-12 (NASB)
“I will declare the decree of Adonai.
He said to me: “You are My Son--
today I have become Your Father.” -Psalm 2:7 (TLV)
“and behold, a bat kol voice from the heavens said, “This is my beloved Son, with Whom I am well pleased.” -Matthew 3:17
“He was still speaking when, behold, a bright cloud overshadowed them, and a voice from the cloud said, “This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased; listen to him.” -Matthew 17:5 (ESV)
“We accept human testimony, but God’s testimony is greater because it is the testimony of God, which he has given about his Son.” -1 John 5:9 (NIV)
“nor have you seen, looked upon, experienced, perceived, discerned, of His form, shape, appearance”
While it is true that Moses and Jacob among others saw manifestations of God and lived, none the less, no one has ever seen God in all the fullness of His glory except the Son.
“No one has ascended into heaven, but He who descended from heaven: the Son of Man.” -John 3:13 (NASB)
“You do not have His word, essence abiding, remaining, staying in you, for you do not believe, have faith in, trust in Him Whom He sent.”
In one sense Yeshua is referring specifically to Himself as the “Davar (logos)” Word essence of God. His hearers do not yet have the Word of God living in them because they have not acknowledged the Word Himself, that is Yeshua, Who stands before them. This is pretext for what follows regarding the written word (Tanakh). The Judean religious Jews have the Torah, the Prophets and the Writings and yet do not recognize the Author (Yeshua, the Word essence of God).
“Him Whom He sent” is Yeshua.
39 You diligently search (ereunao[G], direshu[H]) the Scriptures, Writings (graphe[G], vaketaviym[H]) because you think (dokeo[G]) that in them you have life (zoe[G, chayeiy[H]) everlasting (aionios[G], olam[H]); it is these (ekeinos[G]) that testify bear witness, give evidence (martureo[G], hameiydiym[H]) about Me;
You diligently search the Scriptures, Writings because you think that in them you have life everlasting; it is these that testify bear witness, give evidence about Me;
“Scripture” (graphe[G], ketuviym[H]) refers to the Tanakh (OT) as a whole rather than the Ketuviym (poetry books) only. Therefore, the wealth of canonical Jewish literature of the first century CE is meant.
Yeshua does not deny that the Tanakh points to eternal life, rather He accuses His hearers of failing to listen to the Tanakh and instead making the text itself an object of worship. The text points to Yeshua as the Goal and Mediator through Whom God brings eternal life to human beings (Romans 10:4).
To this day many of our people misappropriate the Torah, continuing to misread and misuse it. The Zohar calls the Torah itself “eternal life” (Zohar in Gen. fol. 100. 3.).
However, the commentator Maimonides is correct in saying:
“he that begins to read in the book of the law is obliged to bless after this manner: blessed be he that has chosen us above all nations, and hath given us his law.--And he that finishes blesses after him in this manner: blessed is he who hath given us his law, the law of truth, and has planted "eternal life" in the midst of us.'' - Maimonides. in Misn. Megilla, c. 4. sect. 1.
After all, the seed of the Messiah is planted securely in the text of the Torah and is therefore awaiting the revelation of the Spirit of God at the appointed time when the fullness of the nations have come in (Romans 10:4; 11:23-27).
40 and you are unwilling to come to Me so that you may have life, living (zoe[G], chayiym[H]). 41 I do not receive glory, renown, honour (doxa[G], kavod[H]) from men (anthropos[G], adam[H]);
and you are unwilling to come to Me so that you may have life. 41 I do not receive glory, renown, honour from men;
The specific Judean religious Jews in question were unwilling at that time to come to Yeshua in order to receive life. Yeshua assured them that He did not require their approval or the approval of any human being in order to fulfil His purpose and carry out the works of God’s Kingdom. He need not receive glory from men because He knew that He shared in the glory of the Father before the creation of the world.
“Now, Father, glorify Me together with Yourself, with the glory which I had with You before the world came to be.” -John 17:5 (TLV)
42 but I know (ginosko[G], yada’tiy[H]) you, that you do not have the benevolent love (agape[G], ahavat[H]) of the God (ho-Theos[G], Elohiym[H]) in yourselves. 43 I Behold, now, take note, beware (Hineih[H]) have come in the name (en ho onoma[G], be’sheim[H]) of My Father (Pater[G], Aviy[H]), and you do not receive (lambano[G], kibaltem[H]) Me; if another comes in his own name, you will receive (lambano[G], tekabeilu[H]) him.
but I know you, that you do not have the benevolent love of the God in yourselves. 43 I Behold, now, take note, beware have come in the name of My Father, and you do not receive Me; if another comes in his own name, you will receive him.
Yeshua knows the hearts of His accusers. He knows that they prefer to put their trust in men of their own sect and have deluded themselves through the pursuit of the theological ideas and rules of their priests, scholars, teachers, and rabbis. In this respect many in the believing community (Church) today are equally guilty. Knowing the text but misinterpreting it through a lack of knowledge of the Author.
Yeshua exposes the hypocrisy of His accusers by pointing out that they would rather follow a man who glorifies himself than a man who points others to the Father as He does.
44 How can you believe (pisteuo[G], leha’amiyn[H]), when you receive glory, honour, renown (doxa[G], kavod[H]) from one another and you do not seek the glory (doxa[G], ha-kavod[H]) that is from the One (monos[G], hayachiyd[H]) (Theos[G], ha-Elohiym[H]) God?
How can you believe, when you receive glory, honour, renown from one another and you do not seek the glory that is from the one God?
Because his hearers were seeking honour and prestige among their fellow religious Jews in Jerusalem, they were unable to see what was right in front of them. It is common to human beings to be distracted by beautiful lies and self-deification, a form of gazing that it is extremely difficult to be loosed from.
45 Do not think (dokeo[G]) that I will accuse (kategoreo[G], eton[H]) you before the Father (ho-Pater[G], ha-Av[H]); the one who accuses (kategoreo[G], ha-toein[H]) you is Moshe[H] (drawn out, Moses), in whom you have set your hope (elpizo[G]).
Do not think that I will accuse you before the Father; the one who accuses you is Moshe, in whom you have set your hope.
The ultimate irony in this situation is that the “hero” of these specific Judean’s and indeed of many Jews of Yeshua’s time, is Moses, the human recorder of the Words of Hashem (Yeshua). Moses who himself points to Yeshua as the “prophet like me” (Deut. 18:15). Therefore, it is Moses who is best qualified to accuse those Jews who deny Yeshua. (Keeping in mind that many Jews believed Yeshua, and that many of us are today returning to HaShem through our King Messiah Yeshua).
Our rabbis agree that the Messiah, when He comes, will rebuke the students of Israel’s sages:
"R. Zeira says, that R. Jeremiah bar Aba said, that in the generation in which the son of David shall come, there will be קטוגוריא בתלמידי חכמים, "accusations against the disciples of the wise men".'' - Talmud Bavli. Cetubot, fol. 112. 2.
46 For if you believed, trusted in, had faith in (pisteuo[G], ta’amiynu[H]) Moshe[H] (drawn out, Moses), you would believe, trust in, have faith in (pisteuo[G], ta’amiynu[H]) Me, for he wrote (grapho[G], katav[H]) about Me. 47 But if you do not believe, trust in, have faith in (pisteuo[G], ma’amiyniym[H]) his written words (gramma[G], lichtavayv[H]), how will you believe My spoken words (rhema[G], lidvaray[H])?”
For if you believed Moshe, you would believe Me, for he wrote about Me. 47 But if you do not believe his written words, how will you believe My spoken words?”
The writings of Moses are widely believed to be prophetic of the Messiah by the vast majority of our rabbis and sages. We need only take God at His Word (Davar, Logos).
“The scepter shall not depart from Judah,
Nor the ruler’s staff from between his feet,
[a]Until Shiloh comes,
And to him shall be the obedience of the peoples.” -Genesis 49:10 (NASB)
“I see him, but not now;
I behold him, but not near;
A star shall come forth from Jacob,
A scepter shall rise from Israel,
And shall crush through the [a]forehead of Moab,
And [b]tear down all the sons of [c]Sheth.” -Numbers 24:17 (NASB)
“The Lord your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among you, from your [a]countrymen, you shall listen to him. 16 This is according to all that you asked of the Lord your God in Horeb on the day of the assembly, saying, ‘Let me not hear again the voice of the Lord my God, let me not see this great fire anymore, or I will die.’ 17 The Lord said to me, ‘They have [b]spoken well. 18 I will raise up a prophet from among their [c]countrymen like you, and I will put My words in his mouth, and he shall speak to them all that I command him.” - Deuteronomy 18:15-18 (NASB)
Copyright 2020 Yaakov Brown
Spiritual leader of Beth Melekh Community, Auckland, Aotearoa, N.Z.