Genesis 25: Reframing Jacob
We must take note that the blessing of the first born belongs to the child who holds the birth-right. The Torah has established here a clear precedent that identifies Yaakov as being the rightful heir and the one to whom the blessing of the first born rightfully belongs.
At the age of 140 years Avraham had arranged for the marriage of Isaac. The Torah now sums up the remaining 35 years and concludes Avraham’s journey with a clear reminder of the distinction that both God and Avraham have made between Isaac, the chosen child of Sarah’s womb and the children of Avraham’s concubines (Hagar & Keturah).
Because Ishmael no longer has a part in the ongoing story of Israel, the Torah simply lists his offspring and then continues on with the story of Isaac.
Some have suggested that because the Torah doesn’t recorded all of the extraneous events of the time, that it is therefore, not a history book. This is ludicrous, how many other histories have been recorded by peoples and empires, focusing only on the elements of history that applied to their own viewpoint and primary goals? The Torah, like those other histories, is telling the factual history of a single people. Unlike those secular histories, it is also conveying the spiritual history of all peoples.
Before beginning we should take pause and reflect on where we are. We are at the centre of the book of Genesis and are about to conclude Chaiyei Sarah by acknowledging the passing on of Avraham. Then we begin again with the generations of Israel (Yaakov). After all, this is the book of beginning.
What follows is full of increase, suffering, hope and redemption.
Gen 25:1 And increasing (v’yosef), Avraham took a wife, and her name was Keturah (Hebrew: Incense, as in a fragrant offering. Aramaic: Restrained).
This chapter begins with the Hebrew, “v’yosef” (and increase). It is of course no accident that this will become the name of Israel’s (Yaakov’s) son of redemption Joseph (Yosef: increase). It is unfortunate therefore, that so many English versions of the Bible omit the full meaning and render the text as, “And Abraham took another wife”.
Some of the sages suggest that Keturah is in fact Hagar by another name, however, this is unlikely given that with the exception of Sarah, we are told of two women in Avraham’s life, Hagar and Keturah: and the text tells us that he sent them away (Genesis 21:14; 25:6). Meaning that they were not the same woman but two separate women.
Some have been inclined to criticize Avraham for not taking another wife from his own people, however, Avraham knew that it would be through his son Isaac that God’s promise would be fulfilled, so it makes sense that he not seek to compromise Isaac’s chosen status by giving his seed to another woman of his own bloodline. The lesson learned from God’s plan for Isaac is not one of racial supremacy but of chosen intimacy.
“It is not because you are more numerous than all the peoples that Adonai set His love on you and chose you—for you are the least of all peoples.” –D’varim (Deuteronomy) 7:7 TLV
Gen 25:2 And she bore him Zimran (musician), and Yokshan (snare), and M’dan (Contention) and Mid’yan (Strife) and Yishbak (He leaves, releases), and Shuach (humble). Gen 25:3 And Yokshan (snarer) begot Sheva (Seven, oath), and D’dan (Low Country). And the sons of D’dan (Low Country) were Ashurim (steps), and L’tushiym (sharpened, hammered), and L’ummiym (peoples). Gen 25:4 And the sons of Mid’yan (Strife): Ephah (gloomy darkness), and Epher (Young animal) and Chanoch (dedicated, comforter), and Avida (My father knows), and Eldaah (God has known). All these were the children of Keturah (Incense).
Many of these children would later become peoples who persecuted Israel and sought her demise.
Gen 25:5 And Avraham gave all that he had to Yitzchak (Isaac). Gen 25:6 But to the sons of the concubines, that Avraham had, Avraham gave gifts; and he sent them away from Yitzchak (Isaac) his son, while he yet lived, eastward, unto the east country.
The point of this account is not to show disrespect to the sons of Avraham’s concubines but simply to show the distinction God had made between them and his chosen, Isaac. Avraham provides for all his household but gives Isaac both the physical and spiritual inheritance according to the promises and gifts of HaShem which are upon Avraham and the coming nation of Israel which is to be born of his trust.
“In Isaac shall your seed be called” –Genesis 21:12
Gen 25:7 And these are the days of the years of Avraham's life which he lived, a hundred, sixty and fifteen years.
According to tradition, Avraham died in the year 2123 from creation (Seder Olam). The record of Avraham’s years, which follows a similar format to that of Sarah, is said to reflect a progression of righteousness that culminates in a child-like innocence in his latter days.
The number one hundred again represents the completed purposes of God for Avraham and his descendants multiplied (10 x10), reflecting an eternal promise of completion and perpetuity.
The number sixty is the sum of 30 and 30, making is representative of two fulfilled promises of God (10 x 3).
The Be’er Mayim Chaim makes a correlation between a sinless state and the number seventy (60 + 10 of 15). The number seventy is also a Hebrew number that represents the nations, which is fitting, given that Avraham is the father of many nations.
The number fifteen is the sum of seven and seven plus one, that is a double completion that has had eternity added to it.
Avraham was 100 when Isaac was born (Gen. 21:5), and Isaac 60 when Jacob and Esau are born (Gen. 25:26), therefore, having lived to 175, Avraham died when Jacob and Esau were 15 years of age respectively. Thus Avraham saw the promises of God made certain in Jacob’s birth.
Gen 25:8 And giving up his spirit (vayiga) Avraham died grey (in a good old age), old, satisfied, and full of years; and was received by his people.
The Hebrew, “vayeiaseph” can be read as “gathered, received etc.” I prefer, “received”. The Angel of Hashem gathers, the people of HaShem receive. The Yehudiym (Jewish people) have believed in Gan Eden (Paradise) from ancient times. This expression of God’s gathering Avraham to his people is one of the many reasons for this long held belief.
The concept of the afterlife is also alluded to in the book of Job 3:13-14 and Genesis 47:30.
Gen 25:9 And Yitzchak (Isaac: He laughs) and Yishmael (He hears God) his sons brought him into the cave of Machpelah (double), in the field of Ephron (fawn like) the son of Tzochar (red) the Hitti (Descendant of terror), which is before Mamre (Strength);
Gen 25:10 the field which Avraham purchased from the children of Chet (Terror); there was Avraham interred (Kubar, root: Kever grave), with Sarah his wife.
It seems that while Ishmael did not share in the inheritance of Isaac, he did none the less maintain, at least in their generation, an amicable relationship with his brother. One might also conclude that he had come to respect God’s choosing of Isaac. To see the brothers here in unity is heart-warming and inspires hope for the present generation of Jews and Arabs. It is worth noting that it is Ishmael alone, out of all the other children of Avraham, who attends the internment of his father’s body at Hebron. A similar reunion would later occur between Jacob and Esau at the death of Isaac (Genesis 35:29).
The Hebrew, “Kubar” translated here as, “buried” is better understood to mean, “Interred”. After all, the bodies were placed into the burial cave rather than buried beneath the ground. To this day the traditional method of Hebrew burial involves placing the body above ground in an encased mini stone or concrete tomb. For the Jew, burial is not the placing of a body beneath the ground. This is in part due to the belief in the resurrection of the dead at the final day, Yom Ha-Din.
The Hebrew word for grave, “Kever” and the Hebrew word for the place of the dead, “Sheol” convey very different things. The former is a physical location, usually above ground, the latter is a spiritual location, identified as being beneath. Contrary to popular and misleading liberal Christian theology, Sheol (place of the dead) and Kever (grave, above ground) are not synonymous. A simple understanding of the Hebrew language refutes such ludicrous nonsense. Make no mistake, there is a Gehinom (Hell) and a Gan Eden (Bosom of Avraham, Paradise).
Gen 25:11 And it came to pass after the death of Avraham, that God blessed Yitzchak his son; and Yitzchak dwelt by Beer-lachai-roi (Well of the Life giving Seer).
It is possible that Isaac and Ishmael spent time here together comforting each other over the loss of their father. This is the place where Isaac seems to find solace in God. He was coming from Beer-l’achai-roi when he met Rivkah following his mother’s passing, and now he is there again after his father’s passing. I believe this was a place of solemn worship of God for Isaac, a place where he was both physically and spiritually refreshed by the waters of The Living Seer (The Malakh of HaShem). A sacred location for restorative retreat.
Gen 25:12 Now these are the generations (Toledot) of Ishmael, Avraham's son, whom Hagar the Egyptian, Sarah's handmaid, bore to Avraham. Gen 25:13 And these are the names of the sons of Ishmael (Hears God), by their names, according to their generations: the first-born of Ishmael, Nevayot (Fruit bearing); and Keidar (Mourning), and Ad’b’eil (Disciplined by God), and Mivsam (sweet odour, balsam spice),
We note first that Ishmael is honoured by being linked to Avraham through Sarah, his mother being named as a handmaid of the matriarch. He is also circumcised into Avraham’s physical and spiritual heritage and is therefore received by Avraham’s people at his death.
Of the many sons born to Ishmael, the most noteworthy are Nevayot and Keidar, both of whom are mentioned in Isaiah 60:7, where these sons of Ishmael come up to the house of HaShem to worship together with Israel in the time when Hashem will dwell with all humanity forever. Their names are important, because we bear fruit (Nevayot) only after we mourn (Keidar) the role we have played in killing God’s Mashiyach because of our sinful actions.
“All Kedar’s flocks will be gathered to you.
Nebaioth’s rams will minister to you.
They will go up with favor on My altar,
and I will beautify My glorious House.” –Yishaiyahu (Isaiah) 60:7 TLV
Gen 25:14 and Mishma (A thing heard), and Dumah (Silence), and Massa (Burden);
Gen 25:15 Hadad (Mighty), and Teiyma (Desert), Yetur (encircled), Naphish (Take a breath, refresh), and Keid’mah (Go before, original);
The names of Ishmael’s children seem to allude to the journey of his brother’s soon to be born son Yaakov (Israel).
“A thing heard in silence, a burden upon the mighty, in the desert they will be encircled and refreshed by the Original One Who goes before them.”
Gen 25:16 these are the sons of Ishmael, and these are their names, by their villages, and by their encampments; twelve princes according to their nations. Gen 25:17 And these are the years of the life of Ishmael, a hundred and thirty and seven years;
It seems that Ishmael truly repented of his mocking behaviour toward Isaac. The fact that he was present at his father’s burial and this listing of years which indicates his connection to the righteous ones, Avraham and Sarah, can only mean that he died in right standing before Hashem. He is 100 (Tenfold completion), 30 (3 x 10) Unity of God multiplied in completion, and 7, the perfection of life and the present display of God’s glory. One can only conclude that no one who turns toward God will be left out in the darkness. Return then, each of you, and be redeemed.
And he gave up his spirit and died; and was received by his people. Gen 25:18 And they dwelt from Chavilah (circle) unto Shur (Wall) that is before Egypt, as one goes toward Ashurah (step): alongside all his brothers he did settle.
Ishmael, being a son of Avraham, like Jacob, also had twelve princes born to him. He was greatly blessed according to the Word of Hashem and he was received by his people both Ivri (Avraham) and Mitzrayim (Egyptians). He is a foreshadowing of a day when all who trust in HaShem through Yeshua will be received into the eternal people of HaShem.
The Torah Portion Toledot begins here. This is the centre of the Torah and the inception of Yaakov, Israel. Hence it is known as Toledot, Generations.
Gen 25:19 And these are the generations (Toledot) of Yitzchak (Isaac), Avraham's son: Avraham begot Yitzchak (Isaac). Gen 25:20 And Yitzchak (Isaac) was forty years old when he took Rivkah (Secure, tightly bound), the daughter of Bet’uel (House of God) the Aramean (exalted) of Padan-aram (Field of the exalted), the sister of Laban (White) the Aramean, to be his wife.
Isaac’s marriage to Rivkah at 40 years is another example of the reason for the symbolic use of the number. 40 indicates the completion of one thing and the beginning of another. Isaac is about to seed his son Jacob who will become Israel, the chosen people of HaShem.
Gen 25:21 And Yitzchak (Isaac) entreated HaShem (YHVH: Mercy) for his wife, because she was barren; and HaShem (YHVH: Mercy) let Himself be entreated of him, and Rivkah his wife conceived.
Rivkah’s bareness connects her to both Sarah before her and Rachel after her. The Matriarchs of Israel are each burdened with fruitless weakness in order to encourage them to turn to HaShem and receive their strength and fruitfulness from Him. Thus the strength and fruit of this fallen world are replaced by the eternal strength and fruitfulness of God.
This verse is one of the best examples in the Torah of how prayer works. Prayer is a conversation which God initiated before creation. A conversation which we only ever respond to. Prayer is a gift from God that allows us to traverse the line between the temporary and the eternal. When we call upon him it is not for His sake but for ours, after all, He need not be told our thoughts and desires, He knows all. Thus Isaac entreats, and God allows Himself to be entreated. He allows His creation to participate in that which He has already firmly decided. The reason for Rivkah’s barren state was so that Rivkah and Isaac might become fully reliant on God. Once again the child to be born has been chosen in God from before the creation of the world.
Isaac is sixty at the birth of Jacob and Esau, which means Rivkah was to wait twenty years to receive the answer to Yitzchak’s prayers for fertility.
Gen 25:22 And the children struggled together within her; and she said: 'If this has to happen, therefore, why to me?’ And she walked forth seeking HaShem (YHVH: Mercy).
The struggle within Rivkah shows the purpose of HaShem from before the birth of the children. Rivkah’s concern over what was happening with her unborn children is yet another opportunity for her to turn toward God and seek His guidance. This decision reveals Rivkah’s righteous character in the same way that Isaac’s pleading for her fertility revealed his. Both Isaac and Rivkah show that they understand their own weakness and their need for God’s help.
The sages suggest that Rivkah sought out Shem (Name), who, according to the sages, ran an academy of spiritual learning. However, I see this as a revisionist view of the events, after all, the introduction of academies of Jewish learning and Torah study comes at a much later date and there is no indication either explicit or implicit within the text to suggest that they existed prior to the birth of Israel.
It’s also possible that Rivkah enquired of God by seeking out Avraham (Who was still alive at this time), or through Melki-tzedek of Shalem. Regardless of how Rivkah went about her enquiry, the result is the same, she heard from God personally.
What seems most likely however, is that Rivkah, as the text says, walked with God. Thus, in seeking God through the physical act of walking alone (humanly speaking) and the spiritual act of agreeing with Him, Rivkah received the Word of God in intimate communication.
Jacob’s journey from womb to tomb is summed up by the prophet Hoshea (salvation):
“In the womb he grasped his brother’s heel,
and in his vigor he strove with God.
5 Yes, he wrestled with the angel and won;
he wept and sought his favor.
At Bethel he will find us,
and there He will speak with us.
6 Even Adonai Elohei-Tzva’ot--
Adonai is His memorial-Name.
7 So you should return to your God,
keep covenant loyalty and justice,
and wait for your God continually.” –Hosea 12:4-7 TLV
Gen 25:23 And HaShem (YHVH: Mercy) said to her: Two nations are in your womb, and two peoples shall be separated from your inner parts; and the one people shall be stronger than the other people; and the elder shall serve the younger.
It’s important to note that this was revealed only to Rivkah. This explains why Yitzchak seems so oblivious to God’s purpose in raising up Yaakov to be heir to the promises of Avraham. Rivkah keeps this revelation of God to herself and acts on it at the appropriate time. Understanding this helps us to avoid passing judgement on Rivkah’s actions regarding the deceiving of Isaac in order to gain the blessing for Yaakov.
HaShem makes it clear at the conception of these two nations that He has already purposed for the lesser to rule over the greater. This remains the purpose of God today for His chosen people ethnic Israel. It is through ethnic Israel that Messiah has come and it is for her that He will return to rule over the nations.
‘Yet before the sons were even born and had not done anything good or bad—so that God’s purpose and choice might stand not because of works but because of Him who calls— it was said to her, “The older shall serve the younger.”’ –Romans 9:11-12 TLV
“’Was Esau not Jacob’s brother?’
—it is the declaration of Adonai--
‘Yet I loved Jacob and Esau I hated.’” –Malachi 1:2-3 TLV
Love and hate are used here to distinguish between that which is chosen to illuminate the Gospel of God’s redemptive purpose and that which resists the calling of salvation.
Gen 25:24 And when her days to be delivered were fulfilled, behold, there were twins in her womb.
The discovery of the twins is obviously a surprise to Isaac and the midwife, but as is the case with many of the female heroes of the Scriptures, Rivkah has already received inside information from HaShem.
Gen 25:25 And the first came forth red (admoni), covered in a hairy mantle; and they called his name Eisav (Hairy).
The sages suggest that the redness of Esau’s appearance was an indication of his future character. The Midrash understands the redness to represent bloodshed, inferring that the child will shed much blood in his life time. David, the king of Israel is also described as being red (ruddy), which the Rabbis interpret as signifying the fact that he would shed the blood of Israel’s enemies. Therefore, the redness alone denotes neither wicked blood shed nor righteous killing.
Rashi explains that the name Eisav means, “Completely developed or full grown”, hence the detail of the hairy mantle covering Esau’s body.
Gen 25:26 And after that came forth his brother, and his hand had hold on Eisav's heel; and he named him Yaakov (Jacob: follower, overcomer, grasps at the heel). And Yitzchak (Isaac) was sixty years old when she bore them.
It’s foolish to suggest, as many of our rabbis have, that Jacob was somehow conceived first and therefore, was the rightful firstborn. This contradicts the Torah itself which shows clearly through God’s word to Rivkah, that the greater (firstborn) Esau will serve the lesser (second born) Jacob.
“It is not because you are more numerous than all the peoples that Adonai set His love on you and chose you—for you are the least of all peoples.” –Deuteronomy 7:7 TLV
The point of this story is to once again show that right standing with God comes through election and response rather than through the strength of the natural order. Jacob is to carry on the spiritual mission of Avraham and Isaac, therefore, he must be named by God as heir and not chosen according to societal norms.
We note that while the text says, “they called his name Esau” it goes on to say, “He named him Jacob”. Who is the, “He” here? It is either Isaac or God Himself. Either way, the name issues from God.
The name Yaakov is a play on the Hebrew word, “ekev” meaning heel. Yaakov, for obvious reasons, is also understood figuratively to mean, “Follower, overcomer”, but literally means, “May he be at the heels”, that is, “One who closely follows”, and figuratively, “May God be his rear guard”.
What the name Yaakov does not mean however, is, “deceiver”: a meaning often given to the name by overzealous Christian pastors intent on defining Jacob by the events surrounding his acquiring of the blessing of the first born, something that was, by that time, rightfully belonged to him.
Gen 25:27 And the boys grew; and Eisav knew hunting, a man of the field; and Yaakov (grasps at the heal) was a morally innocent man, who dwelt in tents.
Much is presumed upon the text of this story by both rabbinical teachers and Christian scholars. Both the traditional Jewish commentary and the popular Christian English translations are misleading. The text itself tells us all we need to know concerning the two young men.
Esau it seems had a one track mind. He knew hunting. The Hebrew, “yodeah” denotes intimate knowledge, meaning that Esau was devoted to the practice. He seems to have been a practical man’s man. The proverbial delight of his father’s eye. There is no reason to add invented character flaws to Esau at this point. That becomes obvious in the pursuant verses.
Jacob on the other hand is a student, dwelling in tents, perhaps even learning how to care for the home. The Hebrew tells us that he is, “Tam” meaning, “Perfect, complete, wholesome, moral, innocent etc.” This sets Jacob apart, for there is no reference made of Esau’s moral character, either positive or negative. This also fly’s in the face of the accusations of so many Christian scholars, who claim that Jacob was a deceiver at heart. The Hebrew text firmly states otherwise.
Gen 25:28 Now Yitzchak (Isaac) loved Eisav, because he ate of his venison; and Rivkah loved Yaakov (follower).
It seems quite natural that Yitzchak, a man of the land, favours Esau. It appears that the way to Yitzchak’s heart (lev: core being) was through his stomach. Rivkah on the other hand, being sensitive, and a keeper of the tents of Yitzchak, favours Jacob, a good young man, concerned with morality and the keeping of the home. Neither parent is better than the other. Each loves according to the path God has set before them. At this point both the hunter and the student are acting according to the gifts God has given them. However, it is once again the mother that has spiritual insight (Gen. 21:9-13), the father appearing blind to the higher purpose of God (Gen. 27:1-45).
God’s favouring the younger son is already attested to in the story of Cain and Abel (Gen 4:4-5) and in a slightly different way with regard to Ishmael and Isaac (Gen. 21:12). It will also become a central aspect of the story of Joseph (Gen. 37:3). All this alludes to the outworking of God’s plan to use the foolish and weak things of the fallen world to shame those considered to be wise and strong.
Gen 25:29 And Yaakov (follower) simmered a stew; and Eisav (Hairy) came in from the field, and he was exhausted. Gen 25:30 And Eisav said to Yaakov: ‘Pour into me now, some of that very red stuff, for I am exhausted.' Therefore his name is called Edom (red).
First, we must understand that Esau, while exhausted, was in no real physical danger. His actions are that of a demanding and impudent man lacking in manners. Sforno suggests that onlookers gave Esau the name Edom (red) based on his foolish demand to have the red stew poured down his throat immediately.
Gen 25:31 And Yaakov said: 'Sell this day your birth right to me.'
Perhaps Rivkah had told Yaakov of the Lord’s purpose for him. Or, Yaakov, responding to his brother’s brash request, is simply jesting. From the perspective of God’s purpose, this is a clear statement of sale, made on a specific day, “Cayom”. In much the same way that the purchase of the cave at Machpelah was clearly stated, the possession of the birth-right of Isaac’s household is now recorded for posterity.
The birth-right is the status given to the first born and a double share of the estate (Deut. 21:17). It denotes authority over the household which is subject only to the male patriarch and only until his death, at which time it denotes complete authority over the household. With the birth-right comes the right of the blessing of the first born, which is to be given prior to the passing on of the patriarch. Additionally, in this case, it also carries the responsibility of carrying on the calling of God and the establishment of His chosen people in redemptive relationship to Him.
Gen 25:32 And Eisav said: 'Behold, I’m about to die; and what profit shall the birth right be for me?'
Esau may well have been exhausted and hungry, but not to the point of death. If he had been the Torah would have read, “Esau came in from the field, exhausted and near death”. Esau’s statement is hyperbole. We use the same colloquial metaphors today, “I’m dying of thirst” and, “My leg is killing me”. The fact that this rash language is employed by Esau when something as sacred and binding as his birth-right is at stake illuminates his true character and makes what follows seem even more despicable.
Alternatively, Rashi suggests that because at that time it was the eldest son’s role to perform sacrificial offerings before God, and because Esau knew that his sinful lifestyle might see him struck down in the presence of Hashem while performing these rites, he was looking for an opportunity to sell his birth right to Yaakov. Thus, “I’m about to die” would refer to his fear of being struck down by God because of his unholy lifestyle. However, given that Esau later became violently angry over the loss of the blessing of his father, it seems unlikely that Rashi’s assertion is correct.
Gen 25:33 And Yaakov said: 'Swear to me first'; and he swore to him; and he sold his birth right to Yaakov.
Not only did Esau offer the birth right as payment, he also took an oath confirming the sale. This is the testimony of two witnesses, which remains a requirement of the Torah to this day. Yaakov has become the rightful heir of Isaac’s physical possessions and Avraham’s spiritual calling.
There is no deception here. All is conducted out in the open before the camp of Isaac’s retinue. Jacob’s actions are not in the least sinful. He seems to be motivated by a deeper understanding of the sacred role that the birth-right will play in his life.
Gen 25:34 And Yaakov gave Eisav bread and lentil stew; and he did eat and drink, and rose up, and went his way. So Eisav despised his birth right.
The Torah waits to identify the stew until after the transaction has taken place in order to emphasize the incredible disregard that Esau had for the sacred nature of his birth-right. Esau has eaten and risen, satisfied with the food and with what he has done. Even after enjoying the meal he is said to have despised his birth-right. Meaning that he continued to despise it. In doing so Esau shows contempt not only for the physical wealth of his father’s house but also for the spiritual mission that the birth right carries.
The writer of the book of Hebrews leaves us in no doubt as to the character of Esau:
“Also see to it that there is no immoral or godless person—like Esau, who sold his birth-right for one meal.” –Hebrews 12:16
The writer of Hebrews agrees with the Targums, seeing Esau as the antithesis to those who trust God and look in hope toward the Olam Haba [World to Come] (Hebrews 11).
"And he despised his part in the world to come, and denied the resurrection of the dead;'' –Targum Yerushalayim
"On that day he committed five transgressions; he performed strange worship (committed idolatry), he shed innocent blood, he lay with a virgin betrothed, he denied the life of the world to come, and despised the birth-right;'' –Targum Yonatan
“For you know that later, when he wanted to inherit the blessing, he was rejected. He found no chance for repentance, though he begged for it with tears.” –Hebrews 12:17
It is important to remember this transaction as we read forward and encounter the deception employed to gain Isaac’s deathbed blessing. We must take note that the blessing of the first born belongs to the child who holds the birth-right. The Torah has established here a clear precedent that identifies Yaakov as being the rightful heir and the one to whom the blessing of the first born rightfully belongs.
© Yaakov Brown 2016
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Founder of the Beth Melekh International Messiah Following Jewish Community,